Morphological Characteristics of Adaptation of the Lungs in the Ground Spinal


Morphological, characteristics of adaptation, lungs, ground, spinal.

How to Cite

K.A. Saparov, Z.B. Yessimsiitova, B.A. Abdullayeva, S.A. Mankibaeva, B.M. Tynybekov, G.K. Atanbayeva, & S.N. Abdreshov Kazakh. (2019). Morphological Characteristics of Adaptation of the Lungs in the Ground Spinal . Journal of Pharmacy and Nutrition Sciences, 9(2), 101–103.


This article discusses the morphological changes in the structures of the lungs when adapting to some extreme factors and environmental conditions.
One of the most pressing problems of biology is the elucidation of the mechanisms of adaptation of the human body and animals to changing environmental conditions [1-7].
This problem can be viewed in two aspects: firstly, in terms of the emergence of adaptive rearrangements in the body when exposed to environmental factors as a manifestation of the body's plasticity in ontogenesis, secondly, in terms of the emergence of adaptation, as genetically and phenotypically fixed adaptation of living organisms to the conditions environment, which arose in the course of evolution [8-13].
The key point here is the identification and comparison of subtle mechanisms of similar (to the same environmental factor) adaptation that arise in ontogenesis and formed in phylogenesis [14-21].


Antipchuk YuP, Sobolev AD. Materials on ecological morphology. Novosibirsk: Science 1976; 176s.

Sobolev AD, Shishkin GS, Ustyuzhaninova NV. Features of the structure of the lungs of mammals of the Far North. The reaction of homeostatic systems in individual and species adaptations. Novosibirsk: Nauka 1976; 81-106.

Masenov TM. Evolutionary-morphological patterns of lung tissue and cell differentiation in some vertebrates due to their ecology. IV conference Morphologists of Central Asia and Kazakhstan. Karaganda 1988; 116-117.

Nurushev MKh. Ecological morphology of light rodents.Alma-Ata: Abai Kazakh State Pedagogical University 1992; 140s.

Nurtazin ST. Lung biodynamics TETRAPODA and some issues of evolutionary morphology. Almaty: Sazaj University, 1997; p. 384.

Bekembetova RA. Features of energy metabolism in animal tissues during exercise in mountain conditions. Actual problems of experimental and clinical physiology. Almaty 2001; pp. 48-49.

Nurtazin ST. Ultrastructural features of cytophospholiposomes in the lungs of vertebrates of various habitats.

Udartseva TP. Mechanisms of adaptation to the combined effects of lead and organic movements. Almaty 2001; p. 226.

Lizurchik LV, Sheyda YeV. The influence of tobacco smoke on the content of toxic elements in the rat organism. Bulletin of Orenburg State University. Orenburg 2014; pp. 73-91.

Kagazezheva NKh, Kolomiytseva NS. The influence of active and passive tobacco on the indicators of the cardiorespiratory system of adolescents in mountainous areas. Bulletin of the Adyghe State University. Adygea 2013; pp. 39-52.

Katashinskaya LI, Gubanova LV. The influence of tobacco smoking on the functional state of the respiratory system. Bulletin of the Tyumen State University. Tyumen 2014; pp. 171-177.

Marushchak MI, Volkov KS, Yarema NI. Ultrastructural changes in the respiratory part of the lungs of rats in the early stages of general lung damage. News of Biology and Medicine Issues. Kiev 2012; pp. 122-131.

Lutsenko MM. Metabolic processes in the general cooling of the body. Fiziol Zh M 2007; pp. 61-67.

Anderson KE, Carmella SG, Ye M, Bliss RL, et al. Metabolites of tobacco-specific lung carcinogen in nonsmoking women exposed to environmental smoke tobacco. Cancer Treat Res 2001; 105: 31-52.

Broeckaert F, Clippe A, Knoops B, Hermans C, et al. Clara cell secretory protein (CC 16): features as a peripheral lung biomarker. J Biomed Opt 2001; 6(1): 31-40.

Eugstrom G, Hedbland B, Valind S, Janson L. Asymptomatic atherosclerosis in smokers. Longitudinal and cross-sectional results from Men born in 1914. Sweden, Cancer Res 2001; 15(61): 778-784.

Pignatelli B, Li CQ, Boffetta P, Chen Q, et al. Nitrated and oxidized plasma proteins in cancer patients. Cancer Res 2001; 15(61) 612-615.

Brainerd EL. Functional morphology of lung ventilation in urodeles. Abstr, 3rd World Cong. Herpetol., Prague 2-10 Aug., 1997. Prague 1997; p. 28.

Growozdz B. Skutki przegrzania organizmu ludzkiego. Ergonomia 1997; 20(1): 15-28.

Muller B, Seifart C, Barth PJ. Effect of air pollutants on the pulmonary surfactant system. Eur J Clin Invest 1998; 28(9): 762-777.

Nurtazin S. Cellural and tissue peculiarities of the reptilian lung structur. Herpetol. 97: Abstr. 3rd World Congr. Herpetol., Prague, 2-10 Aug, 1997. Prague 1997; p. 152.

Pinot F, Bachelet M, Francois D, Polla BS, et al. Modified natural porcine surfactant modulates tobacco smoke – induced stress response in human monocytes. Mol Pharmacol 1998; 54(5): 779-788.

Wyatt TA, Schmidt SC, Rennard SI, Tuma DJ. et al. Acetaldehyde-Stimulated cells and other cigarettes. Life Sci 1999; 64(2): 125-134.

Saparov K. Protective and adaptive reactions induced by cigarette smoke 2015; p. 1295.

Saparov KA, Esemsiitova ZB, Bazarbayeva JM. Morphological Bases of Hygiene, Anatomy 2015; p. 1300.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2019 K.A. Saparov , Z.B. Yessimsiitova , B.A. Abdullayeva , S.A. Mankibaeva , B.M. Tynybekov , G.K. Atanbayeva , S.N. Abdreshov Kazakh