Polyphenols and Rosmarinic acid Contents, Antioxidant and Anti- Inflammatory Activities of Different Solvent Fractions from Nga- Mon (Perilla frutescens) Leaf


Perilla frutescens, Polyphenols, Rosmarinic acid, Antioxidant, Anti-inflammation.

How to Cite

Kanokkarn Phromnoi, Maitree Suttajit, & Chalermpong Saenjum. (2019). Polyphenols and Rosmarinic acid Contents, Antioxidant and Anti- Inflammatory Activities of Different Solvent Fractions from Nga- Mon (Perilla frutescens) Leaf. Journal of Pharmacy and Nutrition Sciences, 9(5), 239–246. https://doi.org/10.29169/1927-5951.2019.09.05.1


Perilla is a rich source of polyphenols, which exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory activities, and a variety of biological effects. The effect of differential solvents on the polyphenols, flavonoids, rosmarinic acid (RA), antiinflammatory and antioxidant activities of perilla leaf require investigation. In this study, perilla leaf was extracted with 70% ethanol and sequentially fractionated according to the solvent’s polarity with hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and water. Samples were subjected to the bioactive compound measurements. The antioxidant and antiinflammation nature of perilla was analyzed based on the scavenging effects on DPPH•, ABTS•+, O2•- and nitric oxide (NO), as well as FRAP assay, and determination of the inhibition effects on NO, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) production in the cell-based study. The results indicate that among all different solvents used for sequential fractionation, ethyl acetate (EtOAc) was most effective in the separation of anti-oxidative and antiinflammatory compounds in the perilla leaf extract. These properties can partly be due to the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, and also RA. It can be demonstrated here that, the perilla leaf EtOAc fraction could be used as a natural active pharmaceutical ingredient for dietary supplements and nutraceuticals.



Pratico D, Delanty N. Oxidative injury in diseases of the central nervous system: focus on Alzheimer's disease. Am J Med 2000; 109(7): 577-85. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9343(00)00547-7

Jang D, Murrell GA. Nitric oxide in arthritis. Free Radic Biol Med 1998; 24(9): 1511-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0891-5849(97)00459-0

Adedapo AA, Jimoh FO, Koduru S, Masika PJ, Afolayan AJ. Assessment of the medicinal potentials of the methanol extracts of the leaves and stems of Buddleja saligna. BMC Complement Altern Med 2009; 9,21: 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-9-21

Siriamornpun S, Li D, Yang L, Suttajit S, Suttajit M. Variation of lipid and fatty acid compositions in Thai Perilla seeds grown at different locations. Songklanakarin J Sci Technol 2006; 28 (Suppl.1): 17-21.

Asif M. Phytochemical study of polyphenols in Perilla Frutescens as an antioxidant. Avicenna J Phytomed 2012; 2(4): 169-78.

Pintha K, Yodkeeree S, Limtrakul P. Proanthocyanidin in Red Rice Inhibits MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cell Invasion via the Expression Control of Invasive Proteins. Biol Pharm Bull 2015; 38(4): 571-81. https://doi.org/10.1248/bpb.b14-00719

Caleja C, Barros L, Prieto MA, Barreiro MF, Oliveira M, Ferreira I. Extraction of rosmarinic acid from Melissa officinalis L. by heat-, microwave- and ultrasound-assisted extraction techniques: A comparative study through response surface analysis. Sep Purif Technol 2017; 186: 297-308. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2017.06.029

Swarup V, Ghosh J, Ghosh S, Saxena A, Basu A. Antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects of rosmarinic acid in an experimental murine model of Japanese encephalitis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2007; 51(9): 3367-70. https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.00041-07

Englberger W, Hadding U, Etschenberg E, Graf E, Leyck S, Winkelmann J, et al. Rosmarinic acid: a new inhibitor of complement C3-convertase with anti-inflammatory activity. Int J Immunopharmacol 1988; 10(6): 729-37. https://doi.org/10.1016/0192-0561(88)90026-4

Oh HA, Park CS, Ahn HJ, Park YS, Kim HM. Effect of Perilla frutescens var. acuta Kudo and rosmarinic acid on allergic inflammatory reactions. Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2011; 236(1): 99-106. https://doi.org/10.1258/ebm.2010.010252

Katritzky AR, Fara DC, Yang HF, Tamm K, Tamm T, Karelson M. Quantitative measures of solvent polarity. Chem Rev 2004; 104(1): 175-98. https://doi.org/10.1021/cr020750m

Kumari R, Varghese A, George L, Sudhakar YN. Effect of solvent polarity on the photophysical properties of chalcone derivatives. RSC Adv 2017; 7(39): 24204-14. https://doi.org/10.1039/C7RA01705G

Thouri A, Chahdoura H, El Arem A, Hichri AO, Ben HR, Achour L. Effect of solvents extraction on phytochemical components and biological activities of Tunisian date seeds (var. Korkobbi and Arechti). BMC Complement Altern Med 2017; 17,248: 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-017-1751-y

Yadav R, Yadav BS, Yadav RB. Effect of heat processing treatment and extraction solvents on the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Momordica Charantia fruit J Food Process Preserv 2017; 41(4): 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfpp.13037

Dent M, Dragovic-Uzelac V, Penic M, Brncic M, Bosiljkov T, Levaj B. The Effect of Extraction Solvents, Temperature and Time on the Composition and Mass Fraction of Polyphenols in Dalmatian Wild Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) Extracts. Food Technol Biotechnol 2013; 51(1): 84-91.

Rajbhar K, Dawda H, Mukundan U. Polyphenols: methods of extraction Sci Rev Chem Comm 2015; 5(1): 1-6. https://doi.org/10.5958/2321-5844.2015.00001.1

Hossain MA, Shah MD. A study on the total phenols content and antioxidant activity of essential oil and different solvent extracts of endemic plant Merremia borneensis. Arab J Chem 2015; 8(1): 66-71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arabjc.2011.01.007

Abarca-Vargas R, Peña Malacara CF, Petricevich VL. Characterization of Chemical Compounds with Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities in Bougainvillea x buttiana Holttum and Standl, (var. Rose) Extracts. Antioxidants (Basel) 2016; 5,45(4): 1-11. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox5040045

Chumphukam O, Pintha K, Khanaree C, Chewonarin T, Chaiwangyen W, Tantipaiboonwong P, Suttajit M, Khantamat O. Potential anti-mutagenicity, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory capacities of the extract from perilla seed meal. J Food Biochem 2018; 42(5): 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.12556

Limtrakul P, Yodkeeree S, Thippraphan P, Punfa W, Srisomboon J. Anti-aging and tyrosinase inhibition effects of Cassia fistula flower butanolic extract. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2016; 16(1): 497. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-016-1484-3

Saenjum C, Chaiyasut C, Kadchumsang S, Chansakaow S, Suttajit M. Antioxidant activity and protective effects on DNA damage of Caesalpinia sappan L. extract. J Med Plants Res 2010; 4(15): 1594-608. https://doi.org/10.5897/JMPR11.1247

Saenjum C, Chaiyasut C, Chansakaow S, Suttajit M, Sirithunyalug B. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of gamma-oryzanol rich extracts from Thai purple rice bran. J Med Plants Res 2012; 6(6): 1070-7.

Do QD, Angkawijaya AE, Phuong LTN, Huynh LH, Soetaredjo FE, Ismadji S, et al. Effect of extraction solvent on total phenol content, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity of Limnophila aromatica. J Food Drug Anal 2014; 22(3): 296-302. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfda.2013.11.001

Lee JH, Park KH, Lee MH, Kim HT, Seo WD, Kim JY, et al. Identification, characterisation, and quantification of phenolic compounds in the antioxidant activity-containing fraction from the seeds of Korean perilla (Perilla frutescens) cultivars. Food Chem 2013; 136(2): 843-52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.08.057

Al-Snafi AE. Pharmacological and therapeutic effects of jasminum sambac-a review. indo am j pharm sci 2018; 5(3): 1766-78.

Jun HI, Kim BT, Song GS, Kim YS. Structural characterization of phenolic antioxidants from purple perilla (Perilla frutescens var. acuta) leaves. Food Chem 2014; 148: 367-72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.10.028

Zhou X-J, Yan L-L, Yin P-P, Shi L-L, Zhang J-H, Liu Y-J, et al. Structural characterisation and antioxidant activity evaluation of phenolic compounds from cold-pressed Perilla frutescens var. arguta seed flour. Food Chem 2014; 164: 150-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.05.062

Kwon SH, Wang Z, Hwang SH, Kang YH, Lee JY, Lim SS. Comprehensive evaluation of the antioxidant capacity of Perilla frutescens leaves extract and isolation of free radical scavengers using step-wise HSCCC guided by DPPH-HPLC. Int J Food Prop 2017; 20: S921-S34. https://doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2017.1318289

Kloetzer L, Bompa AS, Blaga AC, Galaction AI, Cascaval D. Study on rosmarinic acid separation by synergic extraction. Sep Sci Technol 2018; 53(4): 645-54. https://doi.org/10.1080/01496395.2017.1398760

Tomsone L, Kruma, Z, Galoburda R. Comparison of different solvents and extraction methods for isolation of phenolic compounds from horseradish roots (Armoracia rusticana). Int J Agr Biol Eng 2012; 6(4): 236-41.

Farhan BM, Razak A, Yong, PK, Shah, ZM, Abdullah, LC, Soh Sin Yee, SS, Yaw, TCS. The Effects of Varying Solvent Polarity on Extraction Yield of Orthosiphon stamineus Leaves. J Appl Sci 2012; 12(11): 1207-10. https://doi.org/10.3923/jas.2012.1207.1210

Gutierrez RMP, Cotera LBF, Gonzalez AMN. Evaluation of the antioxidant and anti-glication effects. Molecules 2012; 17: 11897-919. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules171011897

Huang D, Ou B, Prior RL. The Chemistry behind Antioxidant Capacity Assays. J Agric Food Chem 2005; 53(6): 1841-56. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf030723c

Magalhaes LM, Segundo MA, Reis S, Lima JLFC. Methodological aspects about in vitro evaluation of antioxidant properties. Anal Chim Acta 2008; 613: 1-19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2008.02.047

Shah P, Modi HA. Comparative Study of DPPH, ABTS and FRAP Assays for Determination of Antioxidant Activity. Int j res appl sci eng 2015; 3(VI): 636-41.

Hong E, Park KH, Kim GH. Phenolic-enriched fractions from Perilla frutuscens var. acuta: determinating rosmarinic acid and antioxidant activity Journal of Food Biochemistry 2011; 35(6): 1637-45. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4514.2010.00481.x

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2019 Kanokkarn Phromnoi , Maitree Suttajit, Chalermpong Saenjum