Markhamia tomentosa (Benth.) K. Schum. ex Engl. is a shrub or small tree widely used as traditional medicine throughout its distributional range in west Africa. This study was aimed at providing a critical review of medicinal uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of M. tomentosa. Documented information on medicinal uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of M. tomentosa was collected from several online sources such as Scopus, Google Scholar, PubMed and Science Direct, and pre-electronic sources such as book chapters, books, journal articles and scientific publications obtained from the University library. This study revealed that the bark, leaf, root and stem bark decoction and/or infusion of M. tomentosa are mainly used as traditional medicine for elephantiasis, infertility, skin infections, rheumatism, eye problems, pain, diabetes and fever. Phytochemical compounds identified from the species include alkaloids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, phenolics, saponins, sterols, tannins and triterpenoids. Markhamia tomentosa crude extracts and compounds isolated from the species exhibited analgesic, acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory, anti-amnesic, antibacterial, antifungal, antifeedant, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiplasmodial, antitrypanosomal, antiulcer, larvicidal, leishmanicidal and cytotoxicity activities. Markhamia tomentosa should be subjected to detailed phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological evaluations aimed at correlating its medicinal uses with its phytochemistry and pharmacological activities.
Fischer E, Thiesen I, Lohmann LG. Bignoniaceae. In Kubitzki K (Editor), The families and genera of vascular plants. Berlin: Springer; 2004, pp. 9-38. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-18617-2_2
Ibrahim MB, et al. Review of the phytochemical and pharmacological studies of the genus Markhamia. Phcog Rev 2016; 10: 50-9. https://doi.org/10.4103/0973-7847.176547
Palmer E, Pitman N. Trees of southern Africa covering all known indigenous species in the Republic of South Africa, South-West Africa, Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland. Cape Town: Balkema; 1972.
Bayton R. RHS Gardener’s botanical: An encyclopedia of Latin plant names. London: Mitchell Beazley Publisher; 2019. https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctvvh85k9
Hutchinson J, Dalziel JM. Bignoniaceae: Flora of west tropical Africa. London: Crown Agents; 1931.
Heine HH. 1963. Bignoniaceae. In Hepper FN (Editor), Flora of west tropical Africa. London: Crown Agents; 1963, pp. 45-97.
Akoègninou A, Van der Burg WJ, Van der Maesen LJG. Flore Analytique du Bénin. Leiden: Backhuys Publishers; 2006.
Maroyi A. Markhamia lutea (Benth.) K. Schum. In Lemmens RHMJ, Louppe D, Oteng-Amoako AA (Editors), Plant resources of tropical Africa 7: timbers 2. Leiden: Backhuys Publishers; 2012, pp. 457-461.
Figueiredo E, Smith GF. Plants of Angola. Pretoria: Strelitzia 22, South African National Biodiversity Institute; 2008.
Burkill HM. The useful plant of west tropical African. Richmond: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew; 1985.
Odugbemi TO. Outlines and pictures of medicinal plants from Nigeria. Lagos: University of Lagos Press; 2006.
Sowemimo A, Samuel F, Fageyinbo MS. Anti-in?ammatory activity of Markhamia tomentosa (Benth.) K. Schum. ex Engl. ethanolic leaf extract. J Ethnopharmacol 2013; 149: 191-4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.06.020
Irvine FR. Woody plants of Ghana. London: Oxford University Press; 1961.
Magassouba FB, et al. Ethnobotanical survey and antibacterial activity of some plants used in Guinean traditional medicine. J Ethnopharmacol 2007; 114: 44-53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2007.07.009
Samba BM, et al. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of some medicinal plants used in the treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STI) in Guinean traditional medicine. J Plant Sci 2015; 3: 6-10. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajls.20150303.25
Aladesanmi AJ, et al. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of some Nigerian medicinal plants. Afr J Compl Alt Med 2007; 4: 173-84. https://doi.org/10.4314/ajtcam.v4i2.31206
Bouquet A, Debray M. Medicinal plants of the Ivory Coast. Paris: Travaux et Documents de I’ORSTOM; 1974.
Abiolu OA. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in southwestern Nigeria and traditional healers’ perception of indigenous knowledge digitisation. Inkanyiso J Hum Soc Sci 2018; 10(1): 90-102.
Diallo A, et al. Management of diabetes in Guinean traditional medicine: An ethnobotanical investigation in the coastal lowlands. J Ethnopharmacol 2012; 144: 353-61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2012.09.020
Soladoye MO, Chukwuma EC, Owa FP. An ‘avalanche’ of plant species for the traditional cure of diabetes mellitus in south-western Nigeria. J Nat Prod Plant Res 2012; 2(1): 60-72.
Lautenschläger T, et al. First large-scale ethnobotanical survey in the province of Uíge, northern Angola. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2018; 14: 51. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13002-018-0238-3
Akinwumi IA, Sonibare MA. Use of medicinal plants for the treatment of gastric ulcer in some parts of southwestern Nigeria. Afr J Pharm Pharmacol 2019; 13(15): 223-35.
Focho DA, et al. Ethnobotanical survey of trees in Fundong, northwest region, Cameroon. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2009; 5: 17. https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-5-17
Focho DA, et al. Ethnobotanical survey of plants used to treat diseases of the reproductive system and preliminary phytochemical screening of some species of Malvaceae in Ndop central sub-division, Cameroon. J Med Plants Res 2009; 3(4): 301-14.
Soladoye MO, et al. Ethnobotanical survey of plants used in the traditional treatment of female infertility in southwestern Nigeria. Ethnobot Res Appl 2014; 12: 81-90.
Tsobou R, Mapongmetsem PM, Van Damme P. Medicinal plants used against typhoid fever in Bamboutos division, western Cameroon. Ethnobot Res Appl 2013; 11: 163-74.
Tantangmo F, et al. Antiprotozoal activities of some constituents of Markhamia tomentosa (Bignoniaceae). Annals Trop Med Parasitol 2010; 104(5): 391-8. https://doi.org/10.1179/136485910X12743554760180
Ugbabe GE, et al. Preliminary phytochemical and antimicrobial analyses of the leaves of Nigerian Bignoniaceae Juss. Global Res J 2010; 1(1): 1-5.
Borokini TI, Omotayo FO. Phytochemical and ethnobotanical study of some selected medicinal plants from Nigeria. J Med Plants Res 2012; 6: 1106-18. https://doi.org/10.5897/JMPR09.430
Temdie RJG, et al. Analgesic and anti- in?ammatory effects of the leaves of Markhamia tomentosa (Benth.) K.Schum. (Bignoniaceae). Pharmacologia 2012; 3: 565-73. https://doi.org/10.5567/pharmacologia.2012.565.573
So?diya MO, et al. Antiulcer activity of the ethanolic extract and ethyl ace fraction of the leaves of Markhamia tomentosa in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2014; 157: 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2014.09.012
Sofidiya MO, et al. Antiulcer activity of ethanolic extract of Markhamia tomentosa leaves in rats. Planta Med 2014; 80: 3. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0034-1382592
Bankole AE, et al. Phytochemical screening and in vivo antimalarial activity of extracts from three medicinal plants used in malaria treatment in Nigeria. Parasitol Res 2016; 115: 299-305. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-015-4747-x
Bankole AE, Uchendu EE, Adekunle AA. In vitro germination of Markhamia tomentosa Benth K. Schum ex. Engl. and preliminary phytochemical screening for medicinal compounds. Ind J Plant Physiol 2017; 22(1): 85-93. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40502-016-0279-3
Ionita R, et al. Cognitive?enhancing and antioxidant activities of the aqueous extract from Markhamia tomentosa (Benth.) K. Schum. stem bark in a rat model of scopolamine. Behav Brain Funct 2017; 13: 5. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12993-017-0123-6
Voukeng IK, Beng VP, Kuete V. Multidrug resistant bacteria are sensitive to Euphorbia prostrata and six others Cameroonian medicinal plants extracts. BMC Res Notes 2017; 10: 321. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-017-2665-y
Ibrahim MB, et al. Biological evaluation of phytoconstituents from Markhamia tomentosa ethanolic leaf extract. S Afr J Bot 2018; 115: 31-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2017.12.014
Elu?oye TO, et al. Acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of some selected Nigerian medicinal plants. Brazilian J Pharmacogn 2010; 20: 472-7. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-695X2010000400002
Ibrahim M, et al. Antifungal and antiproliferative activities of endophytic fungi isolated from the leaves of Markhamia tomentosa. Pharm Biol 2017; 55(1): 590-5. https://doi.org/10.1080/13880209.2016.1263671
Temdie RJG, Lambou AF, Dimo T. Acute and chronic anti-inflammatory effects of the methanol leaf extract of Markhamia tomentosa (Benth.) K. Schum. (Bignoniaceae). J Sci Res Pharm 2012; 1(4): 12-18.
Adebajo AC, et al. Activities of some Nigerian medicinal plants against Aedes aegypti. Chinese Med 2012; 3: 151-6. https://doi.org/10.4236/cm.2012.33024
Adebajo AC, et al. Determination of properties useful for sourcing Nigerian phytolarvicides. Planta Med 2013; 79: 11. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0033-1352030
Ibrahim B, et al. Antiproliferative and apoptosis inducing activity of Markhamia tomentosa leaf extract on HeLa cells. J Ethnopharmacol 2013; 149: 745-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.07.040
Ibrahim MB, et al. Sub-acute and chronic toxicity pro?les of Markhamia tomentosa ethanolic leaf extract in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2016; 193: 68-75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2016.07.036
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Copyright (c) 2020 Alfred Maroyi