Volkameria glabra (E. Mey.) Mabb. & Y.W. Yuan is a deciduous shrub or a small tree widely used as traditional medicine throughout its distributional range in tropical Africa. This study is aimed at providing a critical review of pharmacological properties, phytochemistry, and medicinal uses of V. glabra. Documented information on pharmacological properties, phytochemistry and medicinal uses of V. glabra was collected from several online sources such as Scopus, Google Scholar, PubMed and Science Direct, and pre-electronic sources such as book chapters, books, journal articles and scientific publications obtained from the university library. This study revealed that the bark, leaf and root infusion and/or decoction of V. glabra are mainly used as immune booster, protective charm, anthelmintic and ethnoveterinary medicine, and traditional medicine for convulsions, fractured bones, fever, wounds, gastro-intestinal problems, snake bite and respiratory diseases. Phytochemical compounds identified from the species include aliphatic glycosides, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, iridoid, phenols, saponins, steroids, tannins and triterpenoids. The V. glabra and compounds isolated from the species exhibited acaricidal, anthelmintic, antibacterial, antifungal, antimycobacterial, anti-collagenase, antidiabetic, anti-elastase, anti-inflammatory, antileishmanial, antioxidant, antiplasmodial, antipyretic, cholinesterase enzyme inhibition, immune-stimulant and cytotoxicity activities. Volkameria glabra should be subjected to detailed phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological evaluations aimed at correlating its medicinal uses with its phytochemistry and pharmacological activities.
Quattrocchi U. CRC World dictionary of palms: common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology volume iv R-Z. Washington DC: CRC Press; 1999.
Thomas V, Grant R. Sappi tree spotting: KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Cape. Johannesburg: Jacana Media (Pty) Ltd; 2013.
Yuan Y-W, et al. Further disintegration and redefinition of Clerodendrum (Lamiaceae): Implications for the understanding of the evolution of an intriguing breeding strategy. Taxon 2010; 59(1): 125-33. https://doi.org/10.1002/tax.591013
Palgrave MC. Keith Coates Palgrave trees of southern Africa. Cape Town: Struik Publishers, 2002.
Germishuizen G and Meyer NL. Plants of southern Africa: An annotated checklist. Pretoria: Strelitzia 14, National Botanical Institute, 2003.
Fernandes R, Diniz M.A. Avicenniaceae, Nesogenaceae, Verbenaceae and Lamiaceae (subfamalies, Viticoideae and Ajugoideae) Flora Zambesiaca 8(7). Richmond: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 2005.
Bandeira S, Bolnick D, Barbosa F. Wild flowers of southern Mozambique. Maputo: Universidade Eduardo Mondlane, 2007.
Figueiredo E, Smith GF. Plants of Angola. Pretoria: Strelitzia 22, South African National Biodiversity Institute, 2008.
Quattrocchi U. CRC world dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: Common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology. Washington DC: CRC Press, 2012.
Koekemoer M, Steyn HM, Bester SP. Guide to plant families of southern Africa. Pretoria: Strelitzia 31, South African National Biodiversity Institute, 2014.
Schmidt E, Lotter M, McCleland W. Trees and shrubs of Mpumalanga and Kruger National Park. Johannesburg: Jacana Media, 2017.
Mawela KG, et al. Repellent properties of Rotheca glabrum plant extracts against adults of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. BMC Vet Res 2019; 15: 122. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12917-019-1853-5
Rivera D, et al. What is in a name? The need for accurate scientific nomenclature for plants. J Ethnopharmacol 2014; 152: 393-402. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.12.022
Dauncey EA, et al. Common mistakes when using plant names and how to avoid them. European J Integrative Med 2016; 8: 597-601. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eujim.2016.09.005
Ghorbani A, Saeedi Y, De Boer HJ. Unidentifiable by morphology: DNA barcoding of plant material in local markets in Iran. PLoS One 2017; 12(4): e0175722. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0175722
Guzzon F, Ardenghi NMG. Could taxonomic misnaming threaten the ex situ conservation and the usage of plant genetic resources? Biod Cons 2018; 27: 1157-72. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-017-1485-7
Sharma V, Restrepo MI, Sarkar IN. Solr-plant: efficient extraction of plant names from text. BMC Bioinform 2019; 20: 263. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12859-019-2874-6
Drummond RB. A list of trees, shrubs and woody climbers indigenous or naturalised in Rhodesia. Kirkia 1975; 10(2): 229-85.
Verdcourt B. Clerodendrum. In Polhill RM (Ed.), Flora of tropical East Africa: Verbenaceae. Rotterdam: Balkema, 1992, pp. 84-144.
Setshogo MP, Venter F. Trees of Botswana: Names and distribution. Pretoria: Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 18, 2003.
Da Silva MC, Izidine S, Amude AB. A preliminary checklist of the vascular plants of Mozambique. Pretoria: Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 30, 2004.
Mapaura A, Timberlake J. A checklist of Zimbabwean vascular plants. Pretoria: Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 33, 2004.
Loffler L, Loffler P. Swaziland tree atlas: Including selected shrubs and climbers. Pretoria: Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 38, 2005.
Setshogo MP. Preliminary checklist of the plants of Botswana. Pretoria: Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 37, 2005.
Thulin M. Flora of Somalia 3. Richmond: The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 2006.
Van Wyk B, Van Wyk P. Field guide to trees of southern Africa. Cape Town: Struik Nature, 2013.
Burrows JE, et al. Trees and shrubs of Mozambique. Cape Town: Publishing Print Matters (Pty), 2018.
Lekhooa M, et al. Evaluation of traditional medicines iii: The mechanism of immune modulation by PHELA. Afr J Trad Compl Alt Med 2012; 9(5S): 47-63. https://doi.org/10.4314/ajtcam.v9i3S.7
Lekhooa M, et al. Evaluation of traditional medicines ii: the use of metabolite peak-kinetics to monitor phela in rat plasma. Afr J Trad Compl Alt Med 2012; 9(3S): 73-80. https://doi.org/10.4314/ajtcam.v9i3S.7
Lekhooa MR, et al. The development and use of a drug-induced immunosuppressed rat-model to screen Phela for mechanism of immune stimulation. J Ethnopharmacol 2017; 206: 8-18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2017.04.031
Das B, et al. Anti-cholinesterase potential of standardized extract of phela a traditional South African medicine formulation. J Herbal Med 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hermed.2020.100348
Bryant AT. Zulu Medicine and medicine-men. Cape Town: C Struik, 1966.
Hutchings A, et al. Zulu medicinal plants: An inventory. Pietermaritzburg: University of Natal Press, 1996.
Bisi-Johnson MA, et al. A survey of indigenous herbal diarrhoeal remedies of O.R. Tambo district, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Afr J Biot 2010; 9(8): 1245-54. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJB09.1475
Maroyi A. Review of medicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties of Protorhus longifolia. J Pharmaceut Sci Res 2019; 11(8): 3072-9. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030545
Takawira-Nyenya R, Stedje B. Ethnobotanical studies in the genus Sansevieria Thunb. (Asparagaceae) in Zimbabwe. Ethnobot Res Appl 2011; 9: 421-43. https://doi.org/10.17348/era.9.0.421-443
Long C. Swaziland’s flora: siSwati names and uses. Mbambane, Swaziland: Swaziland National Trust Commission; 2005. Available at: http://www .sntc.org.sz/index.asp, accessed on 14 February 2020.
Nenungwi S. Clerodendrum glabrum E. Mey. var. glabrum; 2012. Available at: http://pza.sanbi.org/clerodendron-glabrum, accessed on 23 March 2020.
Semenya SS, Maroyi A. Ethnobotanical survey of plants used by Bapedi traditional healers to treat tuberculosis and its opportunistic infections in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. S Afr J Bot 2019; 122: 401-21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2018.10.010
Semenya SS, Maroyi A. Source, harvesting, conservation status, threats and management of indigenous plant used for respiratory infections and related symptoms in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. Biodiversitas 2019; 20(3): 790-811. https://doi.org/10.13057/biodiv/d200325
Watt JM, Breyer-Brandwijk MG. The medicinal and poisonous plants of southern and eastern Africa. London: Livingstone, 1962.
Luoga EJ, Witkowski ETF, Balkwill K. Differential utilization and ethnobotany of trees in Kitulanghalo Forest Reserve and surrounding communal lands, eastern Tanzania. Econ Bot 2000; 54(3): 328-43. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02864785
Semenya SS, Maroyi A. Therapeutic plants used by traditional health practitioners to treat pneumonia in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. Latin American Caribb Bull Med Aromatic Pl 2018; 17(6): 583-603.
Masevhe NA, McGaw LJ, Eloff JN. The traditional use of plants to manage candidiasis and related infections in Venda, South Africa. J Ethnopharmacol 2015; 168: 364-72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2015.03.046
Von Koenen E. Medicinal, poisonous, and edible plants in Namibia. Windhoek: Klaus Hess Publishers, 2001.
Fowler DG. Traditional fever remedies: A list of Zambian plants. London: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 2006.
Arnold H-J, Gulumian M. Pharmacopoeia of traditional medicine in Venda. J Ethnophannacol 1984; 12: 35-74. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-8741(84)90086-2
Mabogo DEN. The Ethnobotany of the VhaVenda. MSc Dissertation. Pretoria: University of Pretoria, 1990.
Amusan OOG, et al. Some Swazi phytomedicines and their constituents. Afr J Biotech 2007; 6(3): 267-72.
Amusan OOG. Herbal medicine in Swaziland: An overview. In Juliani HR, Simon JE, Ho C-T (Editors), African natural plant products: New discoveries and challenges in chemistry and quality. Washington DC: American Chemical Society, 2010, pp. 31-49. https://doi.org/10.1021/bk-2009-1021.ch003
Jäger AK, Hutchings A, Van Staden J. Screening of Zulu medicinal plants for prostaglandin-synthesis inhibitors. J Ethnopharmacol 1996; 52: 95-100. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-8741(96)01395-5
Gelfand M, et al. The traditional medical practitioner in Zimbabwe: His principles of practice and pharmacopoeia. Gweru: Mambo Press, 1985.
Semenya SS, Maroyi A. Medicinal applications of plants by Bapedi traditional healers for sore throat and related symptoms in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. Med Plants Int J Phytomed Related Indust 2018; 10(4): 261-80. https://doi.org/10.5958/0975-6892.2018.00048.5
Semenya SS, Maroyi A. Plants used by Bapedi traditional healers to treat asthma and related symptoms in Limpopo province, South Africa. Evidence-Based Compl Alt Med 2018; article ID 2183705. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/2183705
Semenya SS, Maroyi A. Source of plants, used by Bapedi traditional healers for respiratory infections and related symptoms in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. J Biol Sci 2019; 19(2): 101-21. https://doi.org/10.3923/jbs.2019.101.121
Roberts M. Indigenous healing plants. Johannesburg: Southern Book Publishers, 1990.
Matlebyane MM, Ng’ambi JWW, Aregheore EM. Indigenous knowledge (IK) ranking of available browse and grass species and some shrubs used in medicinal and ethno-veterinary practices in ruminant livestock production in Limpopo province, South Africa. Livest Res Rural Develop 2010; 22: 3.
Mphahlele M, et al. In vitro anthelmintic activity of aqueous extracts of five medicinal plant against eggs and the infective stage of Haemonchus contortus. Livest Res Rural Develop 2016; 28: 12.
Wilson A-L, Downs CT. Fruit nutritional composition and non-nutritive traits of indigenous South African tree species. S Afr J Bot 2012; 78: 30-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2011.04.008
Ogundajo AL, Ashafa AOT. Medicinal properties of Clerodendrum glaburum E may leaf extracts: phytochemical constituents, antioxidant, cytotoxicity, and carbohydrate-metabolizing enzyme inhibitory potentials. Comparative Clin Pathol 2019; 28: 927-36. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00580-018-2825-z
Fouad MA, Wanas AS, Khalil HE. Phytochemical and biological studies of Clerodendrum glabraum leaves. Int J Pharmacogn Phytochem 2013; 28(2): 1164-8.
Masevhe NA, et al. Clerodendrumic acid, a new triterpenoid from Clerodendrum glabrum (Verbenaceae), and antimicrobial activities of fractions and constituents. Helvetica 2013; 96(9): 1693-703. https://doi.org/10.1002/hlca.201200552
Wanas AS, et al. Phytochemical study of the leaves of Clerodendrum glabrum (Verbenaceae). Pl Med 2013; 79: 76. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0033-1348757
Teclegeorgish ZW. Phytochemical investigations of Moringa oleifera and Clerodendrum glabrum. MSc Dissertation. Pretoria: Tshwane University of Technology, 2017.
McGaw LJ, Jager AK, Van Staden J. Antibacterial, anthelmintic and antiamoebic activity in South African medicinal plants. J Ethnopharmacol 2000; 72: 247-63. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(00)00269-5
Adamu M, Naidoo V, Eloff JN. Efficacy and toxicity of thirteen plant leaf acetone extracts used in ethnoveterinary medicine in South Africa on egg hatching and larval development of Haemonchus contortus. BMC Vet Res 2013; 9: 38. https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-6148-9-38
Adamu M, Naidoo V, Eloff JN. The antibacterial activity, anti-oxidant activity and selectivity index of leaf extracts of thir-teen South African tree species used in ethnoveterinary med-icine to treat helminth infections. BMC Vet Res 2014; 10: 52. https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-6148-10-52
Adamu M, Naidoo V, Eloff JN: Some southern African plant species used to treat helminth infections in ethnoveterinary medicine have excellent antifungal activities. BMC Compl Alt Med 2012; 12: 213. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-12-213
Dzoyem JP, et al. Antimycobacterial activity against different pathogens and selectivity index of fourteen medicinal plants used in southern Africa to treat tuberculosis and respiratory ailments. S Afr J Bot 2016; 102: 70-4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2015.08.002
Ndlovu G, et al. In vitro determination of the anti-aging potential of four southern African medicinal plants. BMC Compl Alt Med 2013; 13: 304. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-13-304
Wahba HM, et al. Chemical and biological investigation of some Clerodendrum species cultivated in Egypt. Pharm Biol 2011; 49(1): 66-72. https://doi.org/10.3109/13880209.2010.494674
Bapela MJ, Kaiser M, Meyer JJM. Antileishmanial activity of selected South African plant species. S Afr J Bot 2017; 108: 342-5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2016.08.014
Clarkson C, et al. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of medicinal plants native to or naturalised in South Africa. J Ethnopharmacol 2004; 92: 177-91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2004.02.011
Bapela JM, Meyer JJM, Kaiser M. In vitro antiplasmodial screening of ethnopharmacologically selected South African plant species used for the treatment of malaria. J Ethnopharmacol 2014; 156: 370-3. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2014.09.017
Bapela MJ, et al. 1H NMR-based metabolomics of antimalarial plant species traditionally used by Vha-Venda people in Limpopo Province, South Africa and isolation of antiplasmodial compounds. J Ethnopharmacol 2019; 228: 148-55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2018.07.022
Mehrbod P, et al. South African medicinal plant extracts active against influenza A virus. BMC Compl Alt Med 2018; 18: 112. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-018-2184-y
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Pharmacy and Nutrition Sciences