Assessment of the Pharmacological Activities of Ardisia solanacea Roxb: An Ethnomedicinal Plant used in Bangladesh


 Ardisia solanacea, anti-diarrheal, antioxidant, thrombolytic, anthelmintic.

How to Cite

Mohammad Rashedul Islam, Nawreen Monir Proma, Jannatul Naima, Md. Giash Uddin, Syeda Rubaiya Afrin, & Mohammed Kamrul Hossain. (2020). Assessment of the Pharmacological Activities of Ardisia solanacea Roxb: An Ethnomedicinal Plant used in Bangladesh . Journal of Pharmacy and Nutrition Sciences, 10(5), 302–314.


Objective: This study aims to uncover the anti-diarrheal, antioxidant, thrombolytic, and anthelmintic activities of methanol extract of A. solanacea (ASME) and its soluble n-hexane fraction in methanol (ASNH).
Materials and Methods: The phytochemical assessment of this plant was performed by using the standard method. The anti-diarrheal property was screened by castor oil induced diarrhea in Swiss albino mice and plant extract was administered into mice by oral gavage. The antioxidant property was being investigated by two different in vitro methods such as ferric reducing effect assay and superoxide scavenging activity assay. The thrombolytic activity was evaluated by in vitro clot lysis procedure, and the anthelmintic study was carried out on earthworm Pheretima posthuma.
Results: In castor-oil induced diarrhea, ASME and ASNH induced a significant decrease (**P<0.005) in the total number of defecation within 4 hours of the testing period (200 and 400 mg/kg) when compared to the standard drug loperamide. During the evaluation of the antioxidant property, ASME showed promising reducing power with an IC50 value of 79.14 µg/mL when compared to the standard ascorbic acid in ferric reducing effect assay. After that, ASME displayed significant scavenging effect with the IC50 value of 154.36 µg/mL when compared to standard curcumin in superoxide scavenging activity assay. In the thrombolytic activity, different doses of ASME and ASNH were used. These extracts produced considerable clot lysis of human blood, showed significant (P<0.001) result in a concentration dependent manner. The crude ASME displayed anthelmintic activity in adult earth worm in a dose-dependent manner.
Conclusion: It can conclude that compared to standard drugs, A. solanacea have potential anti-diarrheal, antioxidant, thrombolytic, and anthelmintic activity.


Ibrahim M, Baura J, Islam T, Homa Z, Chowdhury MMU, Hossain MA, et al. Preliminary Phytochemical and Pharmacological Investigations of Alpinia conchigera Griff. and Plumbago indica L. Bangladesh Pharm J 2012; 15(2): 153-7.

Mohammadi S, Jafari B, Asgharian P, Martorell M, Sharifi?Rad J. Medicinal plants used in the treatment of Malaria: A key emphasis to Artemisia, Cinchona, Cryptolepis, and Tabebuia genera. Phytother Res 2020.

Penso G. Inventory of medicinal plants used in the different countries: Organisation Mondiale de la Santé; 1978.

Thapar N, Sanderson IR. Diarrhoea in children: an interface between developing and developed countries. Lancet 2004; 363(9409): 641-53.

Liu L, Oza S, Hogan D, Chu Y, Perin J, Zhu J, et al. Global, regional, and national causes of under-5 mortality in 2000-15: an updated systematic analysis with implications for the Sustainable Development Goals. Lancet 2016; 388(10063): 3027-35.

Ashrafudoulla M, Bellah SF, Alam F, Faisal SS, Kafi MAH, Fuad F. Phytochemical screening of Solanum nigrum L, S. myriacanthus Dunal, Solanum melongena and Averrhoa bilimbi in Bangladesh. J Med Plants 2016; 4(1): 35-8.

Abebe D. The role of medicinal plants in health care coverage of Ethiopia: the possible benefits of integration. 2001. In: Zewdu M, editor. Conservation and sustainable use of medicinal plants in Ethiopia, Proceedings of the National workshop, 28 April – 01 May 1998. Addis Ababa. Edited by , Demissie A: Institute of Biodiversity Conservation and Research; 2001. pp. 6–21

Mekelle E. Traditional medicinal plants used by people in Libo-Kemkem district, south Gondar, Ethiopia. Asian J Agric Sci 2012; 4(3): 171-6.

Bellah S, Islam K, Karim M, Hossain M, Ashrafudoulla M, Hasan M. Phytochemical and Pharmacological Screening of the fruits of Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) pers. World J Pharm Sci 2016; 4(5): 205-11.

Miliauskas G, Venskutonis P, Van Beek T. Screening of radical scavenging activity of some medicinal and aromatic plant extracts. Food Chem 2004; 85(2): 231-7.

King A, Young G. Characteristics and occurrence of phenolic phytochemicals. J Am Diet Assoc 1999; 99(2): 213-8.

Balasundram N, Sundram K, Samman S. Phenolic compounds in plants and agri-industrial by-products: Antioxidant activity, occurrence, and potential uses. Food Chem 2006; 99(1): 191-203.

Soberón JR, Sgariglia MA, Sampietro DA, Quiroga EN, Vattuone MA. Free radical scavenging activities and inhibition of inflammatory enzymes of phenolics isolated from Tripodanthus acutifolius. J Ethnopharmacol 2010; 130(2): 329-33.

Auddy B, Ferreira M, Blasina F, Lafon L, Arredondo F, Dajas F, et al. Screening of antioxidant activity of three Indian medicinal plants, traditionally used for the management of neurodegenerative diseases. J Ethnopharmacol 2003; 84(2-3): 131-8.

Koo H-J, Lim K-H, Jung H-J, Park E-H. Anti-inflammatory evaluation of gardenia extract, geniposide and genipin. J Ethnopharmacol 2006; 103(3): 496-500.

Kim J-Y, Shim SH. Medicinal Herbs Effective Against Atherosclerosis: Classification According to Mechanism of Action. Biomol Ther 2019; 27(3): 254.

Orekhov AN, Ivanova EA. Cellular models of atherosclerosis and their implication for testing natural substances with anti-atherosclerotic potential. Phytomedicine 2016; 23(11): 1190-7.

Tuncer MA, Yaymaci B, Sati L, Cayli S, Acar G, Altug T, et al. Influence of Tribulus terrestris extract on lipid profile and endothelial structure in developing atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta of rabbits on a high-cholesterol diet. Acta Histochem 2009; 111(6): 488-500.

Hussain F. In vitro thrombolytic potential of root extracts of four medicinal plants available in Bangladesh. Anc Sci Life 2014; 33(3): 162.

Tandon V, Pal P, Roy B, Rao H, Reddy K. In vitro anthelmintic activity of root-tuber extract of Flemingia vestita, an indigenous plant in Shillong, India. Parasitol Res 1997; 83(5): 492-8.

Kobayashi H, de Mejía E. The genus Ardisia: a novel source of health-promoting compounds and phytopharmaceuticals. J Ethnopharmacol 2005; 96(3): 347-54.

Islam MR, Naima J, Proma NM, Hussain MS, Uddin SN, Hossain MK. In vivo and in-vitro evaluation of pharmacological activities of Ardisia solanacea leaf extract. Clin Phytoscience 2019; 5(1): 32.

Evans WC. Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy, International Edition E-Book: Elsevier Health Sciences; 2009 May 27.

Tiwari P, Kumar B, Kaur M, Kaur G, Kaur H. Phytochemical screening and extraction: a review. Int Pharm Sci 2011; 1(1): 98-106.

Al-Araby S, Rahman MA, Chowdhury MA, Das R, Chowdhury T, Hasan CMM, et al. Padina tenuis (marine alga) attenuates oxidative stress and streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic indices in Wistar albino rats. S Afr J Bot 2020; 128: 87-100.

Oecd. OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals: Organization for Economic; 1994. chemicalsafety/testing/oecdguidelinesforthetestingofchemicals.htm. (acceseed August 15, 2020)

Hackam DG, Anand SS. Emerging risk factors for atherosclerotic vascular disease: a critical review of the evidence. Jama 2003; 290(7): 932-40.

Zaoui A, Cherrah Y, Mahassini N, Alaoui K, Amarouch H, Hassar M. Acute and chronic toxicity of Nigella sativa fixed oil. Phytomedicine 2002; 9(1): 69-74.

Shoba FG, Thomas M. Study of antidiarrhoeal activity of four medicinal plants in castor-oil induced diarrhoea. J Ethnopharmacol 2001; 76(1): 73-6.

Sanja S, Sheth N, Patel N, Dhaval P, Biraju P, PATEL D, et al. Characterization and evaluation of antioxidant activity of Portulaca oleracea. Int. J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci 2009; 1: 74-84.

Pandey MM, Govindarajan R, Rawat AKS, Pushpangadan P. Free radical scavenging potential of Saussarea costus. Acta Pharm 2005; 55(3): 297.

Srinivasan R, Chandrasekar M, Nanjan M, Suresh B. Antioxidant activity of Caesalpinia digyna root. J Ethnopharmacol 2007; 113(2): 284-91.

Reddy BS, Reddy RKK, Reddy BP, Ramakrishna S, Diwan PV. Potential in vitro antioxidant and protective effects of Soymida febrifuga on ethanol induced oxidative damage in HepG2 cells. Food Chem Toxicol 2008; 46(11): 3429-42.

Mohammad Shah Hafez K, Md. Sofi M, Nishan C, Shabbir A, Md. Abdullah Al M, Md. Akramul H, et al. Antithrombotic and cytotoxic activities of four Bangladeshi plants and PASS prediction of their isolated compounds. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 2016; 27(6): 659-66.

Prasad S, Kashyap RS, Deopujari JY, Purohit HJ, Taori GM, Daginawala HF. Development of an in vitro model to study clot lysis activity of thrombolytic drugs. Thromb J 2006; 4(1): 14.

Ajaiyeoba E, Onocha P, Olarenwaju O. In vitro anthelmintic properties of Buchholzia coriaceae and Gynandropsis gynandra extracts. Pharm Biol 2001; 39(3): 217-20.

Auletta CS, RAC M. Acute, subchronic, and chronic toxicology. Handbook of Toxicology, Second Edition: CRC Press; 2001. pp. 82-3.

Islam AMT, Uddin ME, Chowdhury MAU, Rahman MM, Habib MR, Rahman MA. In vivo antidiarrheal and cytotoxic potential of different fractions of Pandanus Foetidus leaves. Am J Biomed Sci 2013; 5(3): 208-16.

Niemegeers C, Awouters F, Janssen P. The castor oil test in rats: an in vivo method to evaluate antipropulsive and antisecretory activity of antidiarrheals? Drug Dev Res 1984; 4(2): 223-7.

Sisay M, Engidawork E, Shibeshi W. Evaluation of the antidiarrheal activity of the leaf extracts of Myrtus communis Linn (Myrtaceae) in mice model. BMC Complement Altern Med 2017; 17(1): 103.

Shiferie F, Shibeshi W. In vivo antidiarrheal and ex-vivo spasmolytic activities of the aqueous extract of the roots of Echinops kebericho Mesfin (Asteraceae) in rodents and isolated Guinea-pig ileum. Int J Pharm Pharmacol 2013; 2: 110-6.

Umer S, Tekewe A, Kebede N. Antidiarrhoeal and antimicrobial activity of Calpurnia aurea leaf extract. BMC Complement Altern Med 2013; 13(1): 21.

Palombo EA. Phytochemicals from traditional medicinal plants used in the treatment of diarrhoea: modes of action and effects on intestinal function. Phytother Res 2006; 20(9): 717-24.

Meir S, Kanner J, Akiri B, Philosoph-Hadas S. Determination and involvement of aqueous reducing compounds in oxidative defense systems of various senescing leaves. J Agric Food Chem 1995; 43(7): 1813-9.

Roy A, Khanra K, Mishra A, Bhattacharyya N. General analysis and antioxidant study of traditional fermented drink Handia, its concentrate and volatiles. Adv Life Sci Appl 2012; 1(3): 54-7.

Chung Y-C, Chang C-T, Chao W-W, Lin C-F, Chou S-T. Antioxidative activity and safety of the 50 ethanolic extract from red bean fermented by Bacillus subtilis IMR-NK1. J Agric Food Chem 2002; 50(8): 2454-8.

Chew AL, Jessica JJA, Sasidharan S. Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of different parts of Leucas aspera. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2012; 2(3): 176-80.

Hagerman AE, Riedl KM, Jones GA, Sovik KN, Ritchard NT, Hartzfeld PW, et al. High molecular weight plant polyphenolics (tannins) as biological antioxidants. J Agric Food Chem 1998; 46(5): 1887-92.

Shirwaikar A, Shirwaikar A, Punitha I. Antioxidant studies on the methanol stem extract of Coscinium fenestratum. Nat Prod Res 2007; 13(1): 40-5.

Islam AMT, Chowdhury MAU, Uddin ME, Rahman MM, Habib MR, Uddin MGM, et al. Protective effect of methanolic extract of Hylocereus polyrhizus fruits on carbon tetra chloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rat. European J Med Plants 2013; 500-7.

Sahreen S, Khan MR, Khan RA. Evaluation of antioxidant activities of various solvent extracts of Carissa opaca fruits. Food Chem 2010; 122(4): 1205-11.

Etuk E, Agaie B, Ladan M, Garba I. The modulatory effect of Cochlospermum tinctorium a rich aqueous root extract on liver damage induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats. Afr J Pharm Pharmacol 2009; 3(4): 151-7.

Parry MA, Zhang XC, Bode W. Molecular mechanisms of plasminogen activation: bacterial cofactors provide clues. Trends Biochem Sci 2000; 25(2): 53-9.

Collen D. Coronary thrombolysis: streptokinase or recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator? Ann Intern Med 1990; 112(7): 529-38.

Mahmud S, Akhter S, Rahman M, Aklima J, Akhter S, Merry SR, et al. Antithrombotic effects of five organic extracts of Bangladeshi plants in vitro and mechanisms in in silico models. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2015; 2015: 782742.

Aziz A, Raju GS, Das A, Ahmed J, Moghal MMR. Evaluation of in vitro anthelmintic activity, total phenolic content and cytotoxic activity of Crinum latifolium L.(Family: Amaryllidaceae). Adv Pharm Bull 2014; 4(1): 15.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Pharmacy and Nutrition Sciences