Cissampelos mucronata A. Rich. is a perennial climber widely used as traditional medicine in tropical Africa. This study is aimed at providing a critical review of medicinal uses, phytochemical and pharmacological properties of C. mucronata. Documented information on medicinal uses, phytochemical and pharmacological properties of C. mucronata was collected from several online sources such as Scopus, Google Scholar, PubMed and Science Direct, and pre-electronic sources such as book chapters, books, journal articles and scientific publications obtained from the University library. The articles published between 1962 and 2020 were used in this study. This study revealed that leaves, rhizome, roots and stems, and whole plant parts of C. mucronata are mainly used as traditional medicines for sexually transmitted infections, fever, swellings, headache, respiratory problems, snakebite, malaria, pregnancy problems and gastro-intestinal problems. Phytochemical compounds identified from the species include alkaloids, anthraquinones, flavonoids, glycerine, glycosides, phenolics, reducing sugars, resin, saponins, steroids, tannins and triterpenes. Pharmacological research revealed that C. mucronata extracts and alkaloids isolated from the species have antibacterial, anti-mycobacterial, antifungal, antiplasmodial, antitrypanosomal, anti-ulcer, anti-androgenic, anti-steroidogenic, enzyme tyrosine kinase p56 inhibitory, hypoglycemic, larvicidal, molluscicidal, sedative, tocolytic, uterine relaxant and cytotoxicity activities. There is need for extensive toxicological evaluations of crude extracts and compounds isolated from the species since C. mucronata contains potentially toxic compounds
Heath A, Heath R. Field guide to the plants of northern Botswana including the Okavango Delta. Richmond: Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew; 2009.
Germishuizen G, Meyer NL. Plants of southern Africa: An annotated checklist. Pretoria: Strelitzia 14, National Botanical Institute; 2003.
Muzila M. Cissampelos mucronata A. Rich. In Schmelzer GH, Gurib-Fakim A (Eds.), Plant resources of tropical Africa 11: Medicinal plants 1. Wageningen: Backhuys Publishers; 2008; pp. 174-6.
Semwal DK, et al. From arrow poison to herbal medicine: The ethnobotanical, phytochemical and pharmacological significance of Cissampelos (Menispermaceae). J Ethnopharmacol 2014; 155: 1011-28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2014.06.054
Maroyi A. Cissampelos torulosa (Menispermaceae): A synthesis and review of its botany, medicinal uses and biological activities. J Pharmaceut Sci Res 2019; 11: 3326-30.
Krog MP, Falcâo MP, Olsen CS. Medicinal plant markets and trade in Maputo, Mozambique. Hørsholm: Christian Ejlers; 2006.
Meke GS, et al. The trade and marketing of traditional medicines in southern and central Malawi. Int J Sustain Develop World Ecol 2017; 24(1): 73-87. https://doi.org/10.1080/13504509.2016.1171261
Klotoe JR, et al. Medicinal plants sold as anti-haemorrhagic in the Cotonou and Abomey-Calavi markets (Benin). Int J Biol 2018; 10(1): 17-23. https://doi.org/10.5539/ijb.v10n1p17
Watt JM, Breyer-Brandwijk MG. The medicinal and poisonous plants of southern and eastern Africa. London: Livingstone; 1962.
Van Wyk B-E, Van Heerden F, Van Oudtshoorn B. Poisonous plants of South Africa. Pretoria: Briza Publishers; 2005.
Wink M, Van Wyk B-E. Mind-altering and poisonous plants of the world. Pretoria: Briza Publishers; 2008.
Gelfand M, et al. The traditional medical practitioner in Zimbabwe. His principles of practice and pharmacopoeia. Gweru: Mambo Press; 1985.
Chhabra SC, Mahunnah RLA, Mshiu EN. Plants used in traditional medicine in eastern Tanzania. iii. Angiosperms (Euphorbiaceae to Menispermaceae). J Ethnopharmacol 1990; 28: 255-83. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-8741(90)90078-8
Bekalo TH, Woodmatas SD, Woldemariam ZA. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by local people in the lowlands of Konta Special Woreda, southern nations, nationalities and peoples regional state, Ethiopia. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2009; 5: 26. https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-5-26
Kebede A, et al. Ethnobotanical investigation of traditional medicinal plants commercialized in the markets of Dire Dawa city, eastern Ethiopia. J Med Pl Stud 2016; 4(3): 170-8.
Tadesse A, Kagnew B, Kebede F. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used to treat human ailment in Guduru District of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. J Pharmacog Phytoth 2018; 10(3): 64-75. https://doi.org/10.5897/JPP2018.0496
Tolossa K, et al. Ethno-medicinal study of plants used for treatment of human and livestock ailments by traditional healers in South Omo, Southern Ethiopia. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2013; 9: 32. https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-9-32
Abiodun AA, Tunji BH. Medicinal weed diversity and ethno-medicinal weeds in Odigbo local government area, Ondo State, Nigeria. J Med Pl Stud 2019; 7(5): 81-5.
De Wet H, Van Wyk BE. An ethnobotanical survey of southern African Menispermaceae. S Afr J Bot 2008; 74(1): 2-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2007.07.001
Tugume P, et al. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plant species used by communities around Mabira Central Forest Reserve, Uganda. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2016; 12: 5. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13002-015-0077-4
Van Wyk B-E, Gericke N. People's plants: A guide to useful plants of southern Africa. Pretoria: Briza Publications; 2018.
Sparg SG, Van Staden J, Jäger AK. Efficiency of traditionally used South African plants against schistosomiasis. J Ethnopharmacol 2000; 72: 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(00)00310-X
Catteau L, Van Bambeke F, Quetin-Leclercq J. Preliminary evidences of the direct and indirect antimicrobial activity of 12 plants used in traditional medicine in Africa. Phytochem Rev 2015; 14: 975-91. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11101-015-9437-x
Fowler DG. Traditional ila plant remedies from Zambia. Kirkia 2002; 18(1): 35-48.
Urso V, et al. Wild medicinal and food plants used by communities living in Mopane woodlands of southern Angola: Results of an ethnobotanical field investigation. J Ethnopharmacol 2016; 177: 126-39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2015.11.041
Ngulde SI, Sandabe UK, Hussain IM. Ethnobotanical survey of anticancer plants in Askira/Uba local government area of Borno State, Nigeria. Afr J Pharm Pharmacol 2015; 9(5): 123-30. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJPP2014.4083
Agyare C, et al. An ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants traditionally used for cancer treatment in the Ashanti region, Ghana. J Ethnopharmacol 2018; 212: 137-52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2017.10.019
Novotna B, et al. Medicinal plants used by ‘root doctors’, local traditional healers in Bié province, Angola. J Ethnopharmacol 2020; 260: 112662. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2020.112662
Long C. Swaziland’s Flora-Siswati names and uses; 2005. /http://www.sntc.org. sz/flora/clusagelist.asp?uid=2&pg=47S.
Reynolds B. The material culture of the peoples of the Gwembe valley. London: Manchester University Press; 1968.
Williamson J. Useful plants of Malawi. Zomba: University of Malawi; 1975.
Giess W, Snyman JW. Contemporary studies on Khoisan I and II. In Vossen R, Keuthmann K (Eds.), In honour of Oswin Köhler on the Occasion of his 75th Birthday. Hamburg: Buske; 1986; pp. 237-346.
Madge C. Therapeutic landscapes of the Jola, the Gambia, west Africa. Health Place 1998; 4: 293-311. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1353-8292(98)00033-1
Akah PA, Nwafor SV. Studies on anti-ulcer properties of Cissampelos mucronata leaf extract. Indian J Exp Biol 1999; 37: 936-8.
Bandeira SO, Gaspar F, Pagula FP. African ethnobotany and healthcare: Emphasis on Mozambique. Pharm Biol 2001; 39: 70-3. https://doi.org/10.1076/phbi.188.8.131.5273
Von Koenen E. Medicinal, poisonous and edible plants in Namibia. Windhoek: Klaus Hess Publishers; 2001.
Giday M, Asfaw Z, Woldu Z. Medicinal plants of the Meinit ethnic group of Ethiopia: An ethnobotanical study. J Ethnopharmacol 2009; 124: 513-21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2009.05.009
Falana BA, Caxton-Martins EA, Ofusori DA. Microanatomical effects of aqueous extract of the leaves Cissampelos mucronata on the kidneys of adult female Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus). Scientific Res Essay 2011; 6(13): 2619-23.
Catarino L, Havik PJ, Romeiras MM. Medicinal plants of Guinea-Bissau: Therapeutic applications, ethnic diversity and knowledge transfer. J Ethnopharmacol 2016; 183: 71-94. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2016.02.032
Frazão-Moreira A. The symbolic efficacy of medicinal plants: Practices, knowledge, and religious beliefs amongst the Nalu healers of Guinea-Bissau. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2016; 12: 24. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13002-016-0095-x
Asmare TW, et al. Traditional medicinal plants used to treat maternal and child health illnesses in Ethiopia: An ethno-botanical approach. J Trad Med Clinical Naturopathy 2018; 7: 277.
Woldeab B, et al. Medicinal plants used for treatment of diarrhoeal related diseases in Ethiopia. Evidence-Based Compl Alt Med 2018; article ID 4630371. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/4630371
Ssegawa P, Kasenene JM. Medicinal plant diversity and uses in the Sango bay area, Southern Uganda. J Ethnopharmacol 2007; 113: 521-40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2007.07.014
Odugbemi T. A textbook of medicinal plants from Nigeria. Lagos: University of Lagos Press; 2008.
Worku A. Ethnobotanical study on the use and knowledge of medicinal plants at three kebeles of Fedis district of Oromiya Regional state, adjacent to the Babile Elephant Sanctuary, eastern Ethiopia. J Med Pl Stud 2018; 6(5): 15-20.
Mukazayire M-J, et al. Traditional phytotherapy remedies used in southern Rwanda for the treatment of liver diseases. J Ethnopharmacol 2011; 138: 415-31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2011.09.025
Gessler MC, et al. Screening Tanzanian medicinal plants for antimalarial activity. Acta Tropica 1994; 56: 65-77. https://doi.org/10.1016/0001-706X(94)90041-8
Gessler MC, et al. Traditional healers in Tanzania: the treatment of malaria with plant remedies. J Ethnopharmacol 1995; 48: 131-44. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-8741(95)01293-M
Tor-anyiin TA, Sha'ato R, Oluma HOA. Ethnobotanical survey of anti-malarial medicinal plants amongst the Tiv people of Nigeria. J Herbs Spices Med Pl 2003; 10(3): 61-74. https://doi.org/10.1300/J044v10n03_07
Muthaura CN, et al. Traditional antimalarial phytotherapy remedies used by the Kwale community of the Kenyan Coast. J Ethnopharmacol 2007; 114: 377-86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2007.08.033
Benoit-Vical F, Njomnangsoh P, Poupat C. Evaluation of Senegalese plants used in malaria treatment: Focus on Chrozophora senegalensis. J Ethnopharmacol 2005; 116(1): 43-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2007.10.033
Nguta JM, et al. Ethnodiagnostic skills of the Digo community for malaria: a lead to traditional bioprospecting. Frontiers Pharmacol 2011; 2(1): 30. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2011.00030
Adia MM, et al. Medicinal plants used in malaria treatment by Prometra herbalists in Uganda. J Ethnopharmacol 2014; 155: 580-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2014.05.060
Memvanga PB, et al. Antimalarial activity of medicinal plants from the Democratic Republic of Congo: A review. J Ethnopharmacol 2015; 169: 76-98. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2015.03.075
Ngarivhume T, et al. Medicinal plants used by traditional healers for the treatment of malaria in the Chipinge district in Zimbabwe. J Ethnopharmacol 2015; 159: 224-37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2014.11.011
Mukungu N, et al. Medicinal plants used for management of malaria among the Luhya community of Kakamega east sub-county, Kenya. J Ethnopharmacol 2016; 194: 98-107. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2016.08.050
Mavi S. Medicinal plants and their uses in Zimbabwe. In Huntley BJ (Ed.), Botanical diversity in southern Africa. Pretoria: Strelitzia 1, National Botanical Institute; 1994; pp. 169-74.
Assefa A, et al. In vivo antimalarial activities of plants used in Ethiopian traditional medicine, delomenna, southeast Ethiopia. Ethiopia J Health Sci 2007; 17(2): 81-9.
Dushimemaria F, Mumbengegwi DR, Böck R. Indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants used for treatment of cancer. In Chinsembu KC, et al. (Eds.), Indigenous Knowledge in Namibia. Windhoek: University of Namibia Press; 2015, pp. 63-88. https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctvgc619h.8
Kamatenesi-Mugisha M, Oryem-Origa H. Medicinal plants used to induce labour during childbirth in western Uganda. J Ethnopharmacol 2007; 109: 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2006.06.011
Kadiri M, Ojewumi AW, Onatade TN. Indigenous uses and phytochemical contents of plants used in the treatment of menstrual disorders and after- child birth problems in Abeokuta South Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria. J Drug Delivery Therapeut 2015; 5(3): 33-42. https://doi.org/10.22270/jddt.v5i3.1144
Olaolu TD, Akinwande OG, Olaolu AP. Evaluation of aqueous leaf extract of Cissampelos mucronata on testicular function indices in wistar rats. Int J Biochem Res Rev 2015; 5(4): 233-41. https://doi.org/10.9734/IJBCRR/2015/14318
Diatta K, et al. Male infertility (case of Varicocele): Ethnobotanical survey of traditional healers in the cities of Dakar and Mbour, Senegal. Asian J Res Bot 2020; 3(1): 8-17.
Morris B. Chewa medical botany: A study of herbalism in southern Malawi. Hamburg: International African Institute, Lit Verlag; 1996.
Gbadamosi IT, Egunyomi A. Ethnobotanical survey of plants used for the treatment and management of sexually transmitted infections in Ibadan, Nigeria. Ethnobot Res Appl 2014; 12: 659-69. https://doi.org/10.17348/era.12.0.659-669
Chinsembu KC. Ethnobotanical study of plants used in the management of HIV/AIDS-related diseases in Livingstone, southern province, Zambia. Evidence-Based Compl Alt Med 2016; article ID 4238625. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/4238625
Minja MMJ. Medicinal plants used in promotion of animal health in Tanzania. Revue Scientif Techniq 1994; 13(3): 905-25. https://doi.org/10.20506/rst.13.3.800
Yamada T. A report on the ethnobotany of the Nyindu in the eastern part of the former Zaire. African Stud Monogr 1999; 20(1): 1-72.
Bussa NF, Belayneh A. Traditional medicinal plants used to treat cancer, tumors and inflammatory ailments in Harari Region, Eastern Ethiopia. S Afr J Bot 2019; 122: 360-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2019.03.025
Hutchings A, et al. Zulu medicinal plants: An inventory. Pietermaritzburg: University of Natal Press; 1996.
Nalumansi P, Kamatenesi-Mugisha M, Godwin A. Medicinal plants used in paediatric health care in Namungalwe sub county, Iganga district, Uganda. Nova J Med Biolog Sci 2014; 2(3): 1-14. https://doi.org/10.20286/nova-jmbs-030234
Kokwaro JO. Medicinal plants of East Africa. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press; 2009.
Kidane B, et al. Ethnoveterinary medicinal plants used by the Maale and Ari ethnic communities in southern Ethiopia. J Ethnopharmacol 2014; 153: 274-82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2014.02.031
Lulekal E, et al. Ethnoveterinary plants of Ankober district, north Shewa zone, Amhara region, Ethiopia. J Ethnobiol Ethnobot 2014; 10: 21. https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-10-21
Fassil A, Gashaw G. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in chiro district, west Hararghe, Ethiopia. Afr J Pl Sci 2019; 13(11): 309-23. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJPS2019.1911
Ferreira MA, et al. A chemical study of Cissampelos mucronata: Isolation of isochondrodendrine. García Orta. 1965; 13: 395-406.
De Wet H. An ethnobotanical and chemotaxonomic study of South African Menispermaceae. PhD thesis. Johannesburg: University of Johannesburg; 2006.
Akah PA, et al. Evaluation of the sedative properties of the ethanolic root extract of Cissampelos mucronata. Bollet Chimico Farmaceut 2002; 141: 243-6.
Nwafor SV, et al. Uterine relaxant property of the ethanolic extract of Cissampelos mucronata. J Nat Remedies. 2002; 2(1): 59-65.
Nwafor SV, Akah PA. Effect of methanolic leaf extracts of Cissampelos mucronata A.Rich. against indomethacin induced ulcer in rats. Indian J Exp Biol 2003; 41: 181-3.
Tor-anyiin TA, Sha'ato R, Oluma HO. Phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of Cissampelos mucronata A. Rich (Menispermaceae) extracts. J Pharm Bioresources 2006; 3(2): 103-6. https://doi.org/10.4314/jpb.v3i2.32103
Katsayal UA, Obamiro KO. In vivo antiplasmodial activity and phytochemical screening of ethanolic extract of the leaves of Cissampelos mucronata. Nigerian J Pharmaceut Sci 2007; 6(2): 111-5.
Tanko Y, et al. Toxicological and hypoglycemic studies on the leaves of Cissampelos mucronata (Menispermaceae) on blood glucose levels of streptozocin-induced diabetic wistar rats. J Med Pl Res 2007; 1(5): 113-6.
Dandjesso C, et al. Phytochemistry and hemostatic properties of some medicinal plants sold as anti-hemorrhagic in Cotonou markets (Benin). Indian J Sci Technol 2012; 5(8): 3105-9. https://doi.org/10.17485/ijst/2012/v5i8.10
Aska AS, Kubmarawa D. Preliminary phytochemical screening of some indigenous medicinal plants used in the treatment of tuberculosis in Bauchi State, Nigeria. IOSR J Appl Chem 2016; 9(4): 48-52.
Aska AS, et al. Quantitative phytochemical analysis and Anti-tuberculosis activity of some selected medicinal plants in some Northern parts of Bauchi state, Nigeria. IOSR J Appl Chem 2019; 12(6): 15-22. https://doi.org/10.20431/2349-0403.0605001
Taniguchi M, et al. Screening of East African plants for antimicrobial activity. Chem Pharmaceut Bullet 1978; 26(9): 2910-3. https://doi.org/10.1248/cpb.26.2910
Nondo RSO, et al. Larvicidal, antimicrobial and brine shrimp activities of extracts from Cissampelos mucronata and Tephrosia villosa from coast region, Tanzania. BMC Compl Alt Med 2011; 11: 33. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-11-33
Gessler MC, et al. Tanzanian medicinal plants used traditionally for the treatment of malaria: In vivo antimalarial and in vitro cytotoxic activities. Phytoth Res 1995; 9: 504-8. https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.2650090708
Tshibangu JN, et al. Screening of African medicinal plants for antimicrobial and enzyme inhibitory activity. J Ethnopharmacol 2002; 80: 25-35. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(01)00409-3
Van Zyl RL, et al. Antimalarial activity of thirteen South African Menispermaceae species. Planta Med 2009; 75: 11. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0029-1234816
Muthaura CN, et al. Antiplasmodial potential of traditional antimalarial phytotherapy remedies used by the Kwale community of the Kenyan Coast. J Ethnopharmacol 2015; 170: 148-57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2015.05.024
Nwafor SV, Okoye CF. Antiulcer properties of the ethanol root extract of Cissampelos mucronata. Pharm Biol 2005; 43: 396-403. https://doi.org/10.1080/13880200590963222
Kela SL, et al. Screening of some Nigerian plants for molluscicidal activity. Revue D'élevage Mmédec Vét Pays Trop 1989; 42(2): 195-202.
Lampiao F, et al. A preliminary investigation of the effects of labour inducing plant, Cissampelos mucronata, on the outcomes of pregnancy using rat model. Malawi Med J 2018; 30(3): 159-60. https://doi.org/10.4314/mmj.v30i3.5
Ndu OO, et al. Effects of ethanolic root and leaf extracts of Cissampelos mucronata on length of gestation period. Planta Med 2008; 74: 131. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0028-1084129
Ndu OO, et al. Effects of ethanolic root and leaf extracts of Cissampelos mucronata on the expected onset of parturition in albino rats. Afr J Pharmaceut Res Develop 2017; 9(1): 75-9.
Garba SH, et al. Effects of the methanol root extract of Cissampelos mucronata A. Rich. on the kidney and liver of rats: A histological and biochemical study. British J Med Medical Res 2014; 4(18): 3465-77. https://doi.org/10.9734/BJMMR/2014/7672
De Wet H, Fouche G, Van Heerden FR. In vitro cytotoxicity of crude alkaloidal extracts of South African Menispermaceae against three cancer cell lines. Afr J Biotechnol 2009; 8: 3332-5.