Phytochemical Screening and In-Vitro Antioxidant Activities of Various Extracts of Helichrysum petiolare Hilliard & B.L. Burtt used for the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa


ABTS, Alkaloid, DPPH, Helichrysum petiolare, Proanthocyanidin, Saponin.

How to Cite

Adebowale Emmanuel Aladejana, Graeme Bradley, & Anthony Jide Afolayan. (2020). Phytochemical Screening and In-Vitro Antioxidant Activities of Various Extracts of Helichrysum petiolare Hilliard & B.L. Burtt used for the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Journal of Pharmacy and Nutrition Sciences, 10(6), 331–340.


The phytochemical contents of the acetone, ethanol, and boiled and cold aqueous whole-plant extracts of Helichrysum petiolare were determined using standard phytochemical reaction methods. ABTS, DPPH, NO and TAC assays were used to evaluate their antioxidant properties. This study reported the highest total phenolic content (212,963 mg/g) in the boiled aqueous extract, while the ethanol had the highest flavonoid (172.393 mg/g) and proanthocyanidin contents (65.855 mg/g). Alkaloids, flavonols, and saponin were highest in the acetone extract, while the cold aqueous extract had the lowest phytochemical content. Among the extracts, the boiled aqueous extract had the highest DPPH•+ (IC50 0.02 mg/mL) and ABTS•+ (IC50 0.07) inhibition capacities, while the ethanol extract exhibited the highest NO• Inhibition (IC50 0.41 mg/mL) and TAC (IC50 0.19 mg/mL). These findings justify the use of H. petiolare in traditional medicine and further recommend the ethanol and boiled aqueous extracts of the plant as more effective extracts for medicinal treatment.


Essack H, Odhav B, Mellem JJ. Screening of traditional South African leafy vegetables for selected anti-nutrient factors before and after processing 2018.

Moodley O, Sun Y, Leo F, Makoto S, Pavlov IN, Li Y, et al. Application of Toxigenic Alternaria oxytropis to Soybeans and its Effect on Swainsonine Detection in Different Environments. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol

[Internet] 2019; 102(2): 268-74.

Ajuru MG, Williams LF, Ajuru G, Harcourt P, Pathology C, Harcourt P, et al. Qualitative and Quantitative Phytochemical Screening of Some Plants Used in Ethnomedicine in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria Email address?: 2017; 5(5): 198-205.

Montalvo-go E, Coria-te A V, Obledo-va EN. Annona muricata?: A comprehensive review on its traditional medicinal uses, phytochemicals, pharmacological activities, mechanisms of action and toxicity. Arab J Chem 2018; 11: 662-91.

Croaker A, King GJ, Pyne JH, Anoopkumar-dukie S. Mutation Research-Reviews in Mutation Research Carcinogenic potential of sanguinarine , a phytochemical used in ‘ therapeutic ’ black salve and mouthwash. Mutat Res Mutat Res

[Internet] 2017; 774(April): 46-56.

Mattila PH, Pihlava J, Hellström J, Nurmi M, Eurola M, Mäkinen S, et al. Contents of phytochemicals and antinutritional factors in commercial protein-rich plant products 2018; (October): 213-9.

Costa LG, Garrick JM, Roquè PJ, Pellacani C. Mechanisms of Neuroprotection by Quercetin?: Counteracting Oxidative Stress and More 2016; 2016.

Zhou H, Wang S, Zhu P, Hu S, Chen Y, Ren J. Empagliflozin rescues diabetic myocardial microvascular injury via AMPK- mediated inhibition of mitochondrial fission. Redox Biol

[Internet] 2018; 15(December 2017): 335-46.

Sies H, Berndt C, Jones DP. Oxidative Stress

[Internet] 2017. 86: 715-48.

Levi CA, Ejere VC, Mgbenka BO. Anti-diabetic properties of N-Hexane fruit extract of Dacryodes edulis on Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats (Rattus novergicus) 2015.

Ighodaro OM, Akinloye OA. First line defence antioxidants-superoxide dismutase ( SOD ), catalase ( CAT ) and glutathione peroxidase ( GPX ): Their fundamental role in the entire antioxidant defence grid. Alexandria J Med

[Internet] 2019; 54(4): 287-93.

Ogboye PO, Onyegeme-Okerenta BM, Monago-Ighorodje C. Proximate Composition , Antioxidant and Hypoglycaemic Potential of Aqueous Extracts of Seeds of Delonix regia on High Fat Diet and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in Female Wistar Rats. Clin Exp Med Sci 2018; 6(1): 33-46.

Boeing H, Bechthold A, Bub A, Ellinger S, Haller D, Kroke A, et al. Critical review: Vegetables and fruit in the prevention of chronic diseases. Eur J Nutr 2012; 51(6): 637-63.

Thangapazham RL, Sharad S, Maheshwari RK. Phytochemicals in Wound Healing. Adv Wound Care 2016; 5(5): 230-41.

Kim T, Oh CW, Kwon OK, Hwang G, Kim JE, Kang HS, et al. Stroke prevention by direct revascularization for patients with adult-onset moyamoya disease presenting with ischemia. J Neurosurg 2016; 124(6): 1788-93.

Kotecha R, Takami A, Espinoza JL. Dietary phytochemicals and cancer chemoprevention: A review of the clinical evidence. Oncotarget 2016; 7(32): 52517-29.

Xi P, Liu RH. Whole food approach for type 2 diabetes prevention. Mol Nutr Food Res 2016; 60(8): 1819-36.

Kiss AK, Naruszewicz M. Polyphenolic compounds characterization and reactive nitrogen species scavenging capacity of Oenothera paradoxa defatted seed extracts. Food Chem

[Internet] 2012; 131(2): 485-92.

Khan I, Karim N, Ahmad W, Abdelhalim A, Chebib M. GABA-A Receptor Modulation and Anticonvulsant , Anxiolytic , and Antidepressant Activities of Constituents from Artemisia indica Linn. Evidence-Based Complement Altern Med

[Internet] 2016; 2016.

Lu M, Han Z, Xu Y, Yao L. Effects of essential oils from Chinese indigenous aromatic plants on mycelial growth and morphogenesis of three phytopathogens. Flavour Fragr J 2013; 28(2): 84-92.

Messina CM, Troia A, Arena R, Manuguerra S, Ioannou T, Curcuraci E, et al. Species-Specific Antioxidant Power and Bioactive Properties of the Extracts Obtained from Wild Mediterranean Calendula Spp. (Asteraceae). MDPI

[Internet] 2019; 1-13.

Njagi JM, Ngugi MP, Kibiti CM, Ngeranwa J, Njue W, Gathumbi P, et al. Hypoglycemic Effect of Lippia javanica in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Mice. J Diabetes Metab 2015; 6(11): 30-3.

Bouaziz-Ketata H, Zouari N, Salah H Ben, Rafrafi M, Zeghal N. Flavonoid profile and antioxidant activities of methanolic extract of Hyparrhenia hirta (L.) Stapf. Indian J Exp Biol

[Internet] 2015; 53(April): 208-15. Available from: 53(4) 208-215.pdf

Sowunmi LI, Afolayan AJ. Phytochemical constituents and antioxidant properties of acetone extract of cleome gynandra (L.) growing in the eastern cape, South Africa. African J Tradit Complement Altern Med 2015; 12(3): 1-8.

Falode JA, Obafemi TO, Akinmoladun AC, Olaleye MT, Boligon AA, Athayde ML. High-performance liquid chromatography ( HPLC ) fingerprinting and comparative antioxidant propeties of rootbark and leaf extracts of Calliandra portoricensis Phytochemical Research Laboratory, Department of Industrial Pharmacy, Federal University of I 2018; 1.

Ahmed D, Khan MM, Saeed R. Comparative Analysis of Phenolics, Flavonoids, and Antioxidant and Antibacterial Potential of Methanolic, Hexanic and Aqueous Extracts from 2015; 394-409.

Rauf A, Imran M, Abu-Izneid T, Iahtisham-Ul-Haq, Patel S, Pan X, et al. Proanthocyanidins: A comprehensive review. Biomed Pharmacother 2019; 116(May).

Sharifi-Rad J, Rodrigues CF, Sharopov F, Docea AO, Karaca AC, Sharifi-Rad M, et al. Diet, lifestyle and cardiovascular diseases: Linking pathophysiology to cardioprotective effects of natural bioactive compounds. Vol. 17, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2020.

Cos P, Bruyne T, Hermans N, Apers S, Berghe D, Vlietinck A. Proanthocyanidins in Health Care: Current and New Trends. Curr Med Chem 2012; 11(10): 1345-59.

Poojar B, Ommurugan B, Adiga S, Thomas H, Sori RK, Poojar B, et al. Methodology Used in the Study. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2017; 7(10): 1-5.

Huang HL, Fang LW, Lu SP, Chou CK, Luh TY, Lai MZ. DNA-damaging reagents induce apoptosis through reactive oxygen species-dependent Fas aggregation. Oncogene 2003; 22(50): 8168-77.

Panche AN, Diwan AD, Chandra SR. Flavonoids: An overview. J Nutr Sci 2016; 5.

Akinrinde AS, Afolayan AJ, Bradley G. Phytochemical Composition and Antioxidant Activities of Dianthus Thunbergii Hooper and Hypoxis Argentea Harv Ex Baker: Plants Used for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus in Eastern Cape, South Africa. Pharmacogn Mag

[Internet] 2018; 13 (Suppl(62): 14(54): 195-202.

Jamei R, Anvari D. Evaluation of Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Content in Ethanolic Extracts of Leaves and Flowers of Some Asteraceae Species 2018; 9: 42-9.

Altemimi A, Lakhssassi N, Baharlouei A, Watson DG. and Identification of Bioactive Compounds from Plant Extracts 2017.

A. A, Thiede B, Zidenberg-Cherr S. Nutrition and Health Info Sheet?: Phytochemicals 2016.

Dibal NI, Garba SH. Role of quercetin in the prevention and treatment of diseases?: Mini review 2018; (11): 647-56.

Manach C, Williamson G, Morand C, Scalbert A, Rémésy C. Bioavailability and bioefficacy of polyphenols in humans. I. Review of 97 bioavailability studies. Am J Clin Nutr 2005; 81(1 Suppl).

Boyer J, Liu RH. Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits. Nutr J 2004; 3: 1-45.

Gallus S, Talamini R, Bosetti C, Negri E, Montella M, Franceschi S, et al. Pizza consumption and the risk of breast, ovarian and prostate cancer. Eur J Cancer Prev 2006; 15(1): 74-6.

Gillespie L. Use of saponins to replace egg whites in alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages 2016; 1(19).

Jorat MV, Tabrizi R, Mirhosseini N, Lankarani KB, Akbari M, Heydari ST, et al. The effects of coenzyme Q10 supplementation on lipid profiles among patients with coronary artery disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Lipids Health Dis 2018; 17(1): 1-9.

Nayak B, Liu RH, Tang J. Effect of Processing on Phenolic Antioxidants of Fruits, Vegetables, and Grains—A Review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2015; 55(7): 887-919.

Al-laith AA, Alkhuzai J, Freije A. Assessment of antioxidant activities of three wild medicinal plants from Bahrain. Arab J Chem

[Internet] 2019; 12(8): 2365-71.

Sandeepa KH, Harsha1 TS, Prashanth M, Kekuda TRP, Raghavendra HL. In vitro antioxidant activity of Anaphalis lawii ( Hook . f ) Gamble and Helichrysum buddleioides DC - a comparative study. J Biosci Agric Res 2017; 12(March).

Idamokoro EM, Masika PJ, Muchenje V. A Report on the In vitro Antioxidant Properties of Vachellia karroo Leaf Extract?: A Plant Widely Grazed by Goats in the Central Eastern Cape of South Africa 2017.

Pmw B, Krishnan K, Jp A, Pmw B, Krishnan K, Jp A. Nitric oxide donors (nitrates), L-arginine, or nitric oxide synthase inhibitors for acute stroke (Review) 2017.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Pharmacy and Nutrition Sciences