Many people in the world suffer from fibromyalgia (FM), a rheumatic disease of unknown ethiopathophysiology and without an effective treatment. Patients do not have a good quality of life and cannot maintain normal daily activity. FM commonly occurs with other diseases, some of them, like irritable bowel syndrome, obesity, or some food allergies or intolerances, are related or affected by diet. Non-scientific information addressed to patients regarding the benefits of nutrition is widely available, and they are used to trying non-evidenced strategies. The aim of this paper is to make a first reflection on the relevance of diet related diseases in FM patients, to reinforce investigation in this field and highlight the importance of health professional advice regarding diets and use of food supplements. An internet based survey was prepared and offered to answer in a specific FM website. Patients were asked about hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, irritable bowel syndrome, food allergies and intolerances, and overweight or obesity. Ninety seven persons answered to the survey, two men and ninety five women. Irritable bowel syndrome and excess weight (overweight and obesity) were the most reported diet-related diseases. In the third position were food allergies or intolerances, and in the fourth hypertension. Diet-related diseases are frequent in FM patients, who even sometimes suffer more than two. Therefore, more investigation and dietary advice seems to be necessary to these patients to improve their diets, taking into account FM but also other pathologies, to keep an optimum nutritional status and maintain a normal weight.
Wolfe F, Smythe HA, Yunus MB, et al. The American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria for the classification of fibromyalgia: report of the multicenter criteria committee. Arthritis Rheum 1990; 33: 160-72.
Weir P, Harlan G, Nkoy F, et al. The incidence of fibromyalgia and its associated comorbidities: a population-based retrospective cohort study based on International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision codes. J Clin Rheumatol 2006; 12: 124-8.
Maquet D, Croisier JL, Crielaard JM. Fibromyalgia in the year 2000. Rev Med Liege 2000; 55: 991-7.
Lawrence R, Helmick C, Arnett F, et al. Estimates of the prevalence of artritis and selected músculoskeletal disorders in the United States. Artritis Rheum 1998; 41: 778-99.
Wolfe F, Ross K, Anderson J, et al. The prevalence and characteristics of fibromyalgia in the general population. Artritis Rheum 1995; 38:19-28.
White KP, Speedchley M, Harth M, et al. The London Fibromyalgia Epidemiology Study: the prevalence of fibromyalgia syndrome in London, Ontario. J Rheumatol 1999; 26: 1570-6.
White KP, Harth M. Classification, epidemiology, and natural history of fibromyalgia. Curr Pain Headache Rep 2001; 5: 320-9.
Valverde M, Juan A, Ribas B, et al. Prevalencia de la fibromialgia en la población española. Estudio EPISER Rev. Esp Reumatol 2000; 27: 157.
Carmona L, Ballina J, Gabriel R, et al. EPISER Study Group. The burden of musculoskeletal diseases in the general population of Spain: results from a national survey. Ann Rheum Dis 2001; 60: 1040-5.
Mas AJ, Carmona L, Valverde M, et al. EPISER Study Group. Prevalence and impact of fibromyalgia on function and quality of life in individuals from the general population results from a nationwide study in Spain. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2008; 26: 519-26.
Gamero F, Gabriel R, Carbonell J, et al. Pain in Spanish rheumatology outpatient offices: EPIDOR epidemiological study. Rev Clin Esp 2005; 205: 157-63.
Salaffi F, De Angelis R, Gras W, et al. Pain Prevalence, Investigation Group (MAPPING) study. Prevalence of musculoskeletal conditions in an Italian population sample: results of a regional community-based study. I. The MAPPING study. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2005; 23: 819-28.
Bannwarth B, Blotman F, Roué-Le Lay K, et al. Fibromyalgia síndrome in the general population of France: A prevalence study. Joint Bone Spine 2008; 24: [Epub ahead of print].
Felson DT. Comparing the prevalence of rheumatic diseases in China with the rest of the world. Editorial. Arthritis Research and Therapy 2008; 10: 106.
Vecchiet J, Cipollone F, Falasca K, et al. Relationship between musculoskeletal symptoms and blood markers of oxidative stress in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Neuroscience Letters 2003; 335:151-4.
Kennedy G, Spence VA, McLaren M, et al. Oxidative stress levels are raised in chronic fatigue syndrome and are associated with clinical symptoms. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 2005; 39: 584-9.
Yunus MB, Arslan S, Aldag JC. Relationship between body mass index and fibromyalgia features. Scand J Rheumatol 2002; 31: 27-31.
Neumann L, Lerner E, Glazer Y, Bolotin A, Shefer A, Buskila D. A cross-sectional study of the relationship between body mass index and clinical characteristics, tenderness measures, quality of life, and physical functioning in fibromyalgia patients. Clin Rheumatol 2008; 27: 1543-7.
Bennett RM, Jones J, Turk DC, Russell IJ, Matallana L. An internet survey of 2,596 people with fibromyalgia. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2007; 8: 27.
Okifuji A; Bradshaw D.H; Olson C Evaluating obesity in fibromyalgia: neuroendocrine biomarkers, symptoms, and functions. Clinical Rheumatology 2009; 28: 475-8.
Wallace DJ, Hallegua DS. Fibromyalgia: the gastrointestinal link. Curr Pain Headache Rep 2004; 8:364-8.
Bellanti JA, Sabra A, Castro HJ, Chavez JR, Malka-Rais J, de Inocencio JM. Are attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and chronic fatigue syndrome allergy related? What is fibromyalgia? Allergy Asthma Proc 2005; 26: 19-28.
Chang L. The association of functional gastrointestinal disorders and fibromyalgia. European Journal of Surgery 1998; 164: 32-6.
North CS, Hong BA, Alpers DH. Relationship of functional gastrointestinal disorders and psychiatric disorders: implications for treatment. World Journal of Gastroenterology 2007; 13: 2020.
Erdogan S, Gurer G, Afsin H, Kucukzeybek Y. Evaluation of gastric emptying rate in patients with fibromyalgia: a case control study. Mod Rheumatol 2010; Sep 28. [Epub ahead of print].
Madsen C Prevalence of food allergy/intolerance in Europe. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 1997; 4: 163-7.
Schäfer T, Böhler E, Ruhdorfer S, Weigl L, Wessner D, Heinrich J, Filipiak B, Wichmann H Epidemiology of food allergy/food intolerance in adults: associations with other manifestations of atopy. Allergy 2001; 56 (12): 1172–9.
Zuberbier T, Edenharter G, Worm M, Ehlers I, Reimann S, Hantke T, Roehr CC, Bergmann KE, Niggemann B Prevalence of adverse reactions to food in Germany–a population study. Allergy 2004; 59: 338–45.
Madsen C Prevalence of food allergy: an overview. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 2005; 64: 413-7.
Carville SF, Arendt-Nielsen S, Bliddal H, et al. EULAR evidence-based recommendations for the management of fibromyalgia syndrome. Ann Rheum Dis 2008; 67: 536-41.
Arranz LI, Canela MA, Rafecas M. Fibromyalgia and nutrition, what do we know? Rheumatol Int 2010; 30: 1417-27.
Arranz LI, Canela MA, Rafecas M. Dietary aspects in fibromyalgia patients: results of a survey on food awareness, allergies, and nutritional supplementation. Rheumatol Int 2011; DOI 10.1007/s00296-011-2010z.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Copyright (c) 2011 Laura-Isabel Arranz , Miguel-Ángel Canela , Magda Rafecas