The emergence of antimicrobial resistance and the side effects of synthetic drugs have raised an interest in searching for new antimicrobial compounds. The present study aims to evaluate in vitro antibacterial activity of green coffee and its active compounds (chlorogenic acid extract and caffeine extract) against some periodontogenic and nosocomial bacteria. The bioactive compounds, viz. chlorogenic acid and caffeine, were extracted through soxhlet extraction using methanol and water, respectively, and HPLC UV quantified these compounds. The study reported 3 CQA, 4 CQA, and 5 CQA as the significant chlorogenic acids in green coffee beans. Aqueous extract of green coffee beans (AGCB), which is dominant in caffeine, has been found to be the least effective against both periodontal and nosocomial bacteria. The result of our study revealed that the methanol extract of green coffee bean (MGCB), rich in chlorogenic acid, exhibits the highest inhibitory activity against periodontogenic bacteria, followed by the ethanol extract of green coffee bean (EGCB) and AGCB extract. EGCB extract was significantly effective against Staphylococcus epidermidis among selected nosocomial pathogens. AGCB extract was least effective against all bacteria. The results highlight that green coffee polyphenols, especially chlorogenic acid, could be used as antimicrobial agents in different biotechnological applications. The antibacterial property of green coffee highlights its potential as a naturally active antibacterial compound.
Nuhu AA. Bioactive micronutrients in coffee: recent analytical approaches for characterization and quantification. International Scholarly Research Notices 2014. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/384230
Eldin TA. Health benefits of green coffee beans. Int J Biotechnol Bioeng 2021; 7(1): 1-20. https://doi.org/10.47363/AMR/2021(8)203
Rossini D, Radiation LE, Amri IA, Prasetyo D, Qosimah D, Murwani S. Antibacterial activity of green coffee bean extract against Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enteritidis. Biotika 2018.
ELSayed MN, SA Harthi ML, MAllehyani N, Alotaibi AN. Determination of the antibacterial activity of Green Coffee Arabica bean extract on multidrug resistance Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853). IOSR J Pharm 2018; 6: 33-8.
Sachin M, Jiji J, Poonam S, Abhishek S, Sweety S, Pooja B. To Evaluate The Antimicrobial Efficacy Of Green Coffee Bean Extract On Periopathogens-A Clinico-microbiological Study. Natl J Integr Res Med 2016; 7(5).
Almeida AA, Naghetini CC, Santos VR, Antonio AG, Farah A, Glória MB. Influence of natural coffee compounds, coffee extracts, and increased levels of caffeine on the inhibition of Streptococcus mutans. Food Res Int 2012; 49(1): 459-61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2012.07.026
Bharath N, Sowmya NK, Mehta DS. Determination of the antibacterial activity of green coffee bean extract on periodontogenic bacteria like Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans: An in vitro study. Contemp Clin Dent 2015; 6(2): 166. https://doi.org/10.4103/0976-237X.156036
Roth GA. Global Burden of Disease Collaborative Network. Global Burden of Disease Study 2017 (GBD 2017) Results. Seattle, United States: Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME), 2018. Lancet 2018; 392: 1736-88.
Magill SS, O’Leary E, Janelle SJ, Thompson DL, Dumyati G, Nadle J, Wilson LE, Kainer MA, Lynfield R, Greissman S, Ray SM. Changes in prevalence of healthcare-associated infections in US hospitals. N Engl J Med 2018; 379(18): 1732-44. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1801550
Suetens C, Latour K, Kärki T, Ricchizzi E, Kinross P, Moro ML, Jans B, Hopkins S, Hansen S, Lyytikäinen O, Reilly J. The Healthcare-Associated Infections Prevalence Study Group Prevalence of healthcare-associated infections, estimated incidence and composite antimicrobial resistance index in acute care hospitals and long-term care facilities: results from two European point prevalence surveys, 2016 to 2017. Euro Surveill 2018; 23(46): 1800516. https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2018.23.46.1800516
Sikora A, Zahra F. Nosocomial Infections. 2022 Sep 23. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing 2022; PMID: 32644738.
Widerström M. Commentary: significance of Staphylococcus epidermidis in healthcare-associated infections, from contaminant to clinically relevant pathogen: this is a wake-up call! J Clin Microbiol 2016; 54(7): 1679-81. https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00743-16
Caballero-Galván AS, Restrepo-Serna DL, Ortiz-Sánchez M, Cardona-Alzate CA. Analysis of extraction kinetics of bioactive compounds from spent coffee grounds (Coffea arábica). Waste Biomass Valorization 2018; 9(12): 2381-9. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12649-018-0332-8
Shinde RR, Shinde NH. Extraction of caffeine from coffee and preparation of Anacin drug. Int J Eng Res Technol 2017; 10(1): 236-9.
Qiu S, Jiang C, Huang Y, Zhou R. Optimization of the Technology of Chlorogenic Acid Extraction from Yacon (Smallanthus Sonchifolius) using Box-Behnken Design. J Food Nutr Res 2017; 6(2). https://doi.org/10.4172/2324-9323.1000223
Craig AP, Fields C, Liang N, Kitts D, Erickson A. Performance review of a fast HPLC-UV method for quantifying chlorogenic acids in green coffee bean extracts. Talanta 2016; 154: 481-5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2016.03.101
Chen Y, Jimmy Yu Q, Li X, Luo Y, Liu H. Extraction and HPLC characterization of chlorogenic acid from tobacco residuals. Sep Sci Technol 2007; 42(15): 3481-3492. https://doi.org/10.1080/01496390701626677
Wayne PA. Clinical and laboratory standards institute. Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing.
Patay ÉB, Bencsik T, Papp N. Phytochemical overview and medicinal importance of Coffea species from the past until now. Asian Pac J Trop Med 2016; 9(12): 1127-35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.11.008
Jeszka-Skowron M, Zgoła-Grześkowiak A, Grześkowiak T. Analytical methods applied for the characterization and the determination of bioactive compounds in coffee. Eur Food Res Technol 2015; 240(1): 19-31. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-014-2356-z
Clifford MN, Knight S. The cinnamoyl–amino acid conjugates of green robusta coffee beans. Food Chem 2004; 87(3): 457-463. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2003.12.020
Monteiro MC, Farah A. Chlorogenic acids in Brazilian Coffea arabica cultivars from various consecutive crops. Food Chem 2012; 134(1): 611-614. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.02.118
Bhardwaj SB. Enterococci: A critical nosocomial pathogen. Pathogenic Bacteria. IntechOpen 2019.
Runti G, Pacor S, Colomban S, Gennaro R, Navarini L, Scocchi M. Arabica coffee extract shows antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterococcus faecalis and low toxicity towards a human cell line. LWT - Food Sci Technol 2015; 62(1): 108-114. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2014.12.039
National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System. National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance [NNIS] system report, data summary from January 1992 through June 2004, issued October 2004. Am J Infect Control 2004; 32: 470-485. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2004.10.001
Sabaté Brescó M, Harris LG, Thompson K, Stanic B, Morgenstern M, O'Mahony L, Moriarty TF. Pathogenic mechanisms and host interactions in Staphylococcus epidermidis device-related infection. Front Microbiol 2017; 8: 1401. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2017.01401
Tong C, Wu Z, Zhao X, Xue H. Arginine catabolic mobile elements in livestock-associated methicillin-resistant staphylococcal isolates from bovine mastitic milk in China. Front Microbiol 2018; 9: 1031. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.01031
Sood S, Malhotra M, Das BK, Kapil A. Enterococcal infections & antimicrobial resistance. Indian J Med Res 2008; 128(2): 111.
Rufián-Henares JA, de la Cueva SP. Antimicrobial Activity of Coffee Melanoidins-A Study of Their Metal-Chelating Properties. J Agric Food Chem 2009; 57(2): 432-438. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf8027842
Inouye S, Yamaguchi H, Takizawa T. Screening of the antibacterial effects of a variety of essential oils on respiratory tract pathogens, using a modified dilution assay method. J Infect Chemother 2001; 7(4): 251-254. https://doi.org/10.1007/s101560170022
Martínez-Tomé M, Jiménez-Monreal AM, García-Jiménez L, Almela L, García-Diz L, Mariscal-Arcas M, Murcia MA. Assessment of antimicrobial activity of coffee brewed in three different ways from different origins. Eur Food Res Technol 2011; 233(3): 497-505. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-011-1539-0
Suárez‐Quiroz ML, Taillefer W, López Méndez EM, González‐Ríos O, Villeneuve P, Figueroa‐Espinoza MC. Antibacterial Activity and Antifungal and Anti‐Mycotoxigenic Activities Against A spergillus flavus and A. ochraceus of Green Coffee Chlorogenic Acids and Dodecyl Chlorogenates. J Food Saf 2013; 33(3): 360-368. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfs.12060
Lambert RJW, Skandamis PN, Coote PJ, Nychas GJ. A study of the minimum inhibitory concentration and mode of action of oregano essential oil, thymol and carvacrol. J Appl Microbiol 2001; 91(3): 453-462. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2672.2001.01428.x
La Storia A, Ercolini D, Marinello F, Di Pasqua R, Villani F, Mauriello G. Atomic force microscopy analysis shows surface structure changes in carvacrol-treated bacterial cells. Microbiol Res 2011; 162(2): 164-172. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resmic.2010.11.006
Almeida AAP, Farah A, Silva DA, Nunan EA, Glória MBA. Antibacterial activity of coffee extracts and selected coffee chemical compounds against enterobacteria. J Agric Food Chem 2006; 54(23): 8738-8743. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0617317
Bouarab-Chibane L, Forquet V, Lantéri P, Clément Y, Léonard-Akkari L, Oulahal N, Bordes C. Antibacterial properties of polyphenols: characterization and QSAR [Quantitative structure-activity relationship] models. Front Microbiol 2019; 10: 829. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.00829
Nonthakaew A, Matan N, Aewsiri T, Matan N. Caffeine in foods and its antimicrobial activity. Int Food Res J 2015; 22(1).
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Copyright (c) 2022 Shraddha Tripathi, Neha Mishra, Neetu Mishra