So many insects are influenced easily by many pollutants; therefore, the influence of lead (as lead acetate) on Musca domestica was studied,lead is considered to be an important toxic waste which could contaminate the environment, such as soil, air and water, therefore, insects could be influenced by the lead. Musca domestica, was studied at 48 hours post treatment, under the effects of lead acetate, in different concentrations. Thus the lead is found to exert a definite specific physiological and morphological effect on these flies, It was observed that under the effects of lead abnormalities and deformity were developed in the larvae of flies. Thus these flies could present a useful module for the quick transmission of the environmental hazards due to lead contamination, which exerts a specific physiological and morphological effect on these flies. The purpose of the present work was to determin the effects of lead on proteins as a major indicator of physiological features alongwith morphology features of larvae of Diptera flies.
Tachi K, Nishime S. Cytogenetic effects of lead acetate on rat bone marrow cells. Arch Environ Heal 1975; 403: 144-47.
Michailova P. Comparative karyological studies of three species of the genus Glyptotendipis Kieff. (Diptera, Chironomidae) from Hungary and Bulgaria and Glyptendipis salinus sp. n. from Bulgaria. Folia Biol (Krakwo) 1987b; 35: 43-56.
Short C. Varion in sister-chromatid exchange among 100 species of the general insect population. Proc Environ 1990; 29: 140-49.
Wilson BS. Sister chromatid exchange in larvae of insects. Lab 1995; 62: 135-44.
Watson N. Chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges in insects of lead polluted. Exp Sci 1999; 90: 64- 69.
Walter R. Cyntheses prozesse an den Riesenchromosomen Von. Glyptotendipes J Sci 2000; 128: 80-85.
Porter DM. Mutagenicity new horizons in genetic toxicology. Proc Tox 2002; 55: 32-37.
(a) Ramel C. Effects of metal compounds on chromosome aggregation. Mutat Res 1973; 21: 45-46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0165-7992(73)90062-6 (b) Ramel S. Chromosomal aberrations in insects. Environ Sci 2003; 16: 119-27.
Talbot PS. Sister-chromated exchange frequency correlated with age, sex and lead poisoning. Environ Tox 2004; 25: 27- 33.
Margim A. Chromosome affected in experimental lead poisoning. Tox 2005; 41: 6-14.
Michailova MP. The effect of metal compounds on chromosome segregation. Ist Nat Conf Plovidiv 1987a; pp. 168-173.
Timmermans KP. Heavy metal body burden in insects larvae as related to their feeding behaviour. Symp Abst 1988; 76.
Rizwan-ul-Haq, Farhanullah KM, Ehtesham-ul Haq. Teratogenic effect of lead acetate on Bactrocera cucurbitae(COQ.). Pak Entomol 2011(b); 33(1): 41-4.
Rizwan-ul-Haq, Farhanullah KM, Ehtesham-ul Haq. Adverse effect of lead acetate on Drosophila melanogaster. J Basic Appl Sci 2011(a); 7(2): 157-63.
Greenberg B. Flies and diseases. Biology and Disease Transmission. Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton 1973; Vol. 3.
Graczyk TK, Knight R, Gilman RH, Cranfield MR. The role of non-biting flies in the epidemiology of human infectious diseases. Microb Infect 2001; 3: 231-35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1286-4579(01)01371-5
Graczyk TK, Knight R, Tamang L. Mechanical transmission of human protozoan parasites by insects. Clin Microbiol Rev 2005; 128-32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/CMR.18.1.128-132.2005
Beliles RP. Metais. In Toxicology. Casarett LJ, Doull J, Eds. Macmillan Pub. New York 1975; pp. 477-482.
Valle BL, Ulmer DD. Biochemical effects of mercury, cadmium and lead. Ann Rev Biochem 1972; 41: 91-128. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.bi.41.070172.000515
Boyland E, Dukes CE, Grover PL, Mitchlcy BCV. Thc induction of renal tumor by feeding lead acetate to rats. Br J Cancer 1962; 16: 283-88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bjc.1962.33
Van Esch GJ, Gendersen H, Vink HH. The induction of renal tumors by f e e d i i of basic lead acetate to rats. Br J Cancer 1962; 16: 289-97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bjc.1962.34
Roe FJC, Boyland E, Dukes CE, Mitchley BCV. Failure of testosterone or xanthopterin to influence the induction of renal neoplasms' by lead in rats. Br J Cancer 1965; 19: 860- 66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bjc.1965.99
Mao P, Molnar JJ. The finc structure and histochcmistry of lead induced renal tumors in rats. Am J Pathol 1967; 50: 571-80.
Choie DD, Richter GW. Cell proliferation in mouse kidney induced by lead. 1 Synthesis of DNA. Lab Invest 1974; 30: 647-51.
Furst A, Schnauzer M, Sasmore DP. Tumongenic activity of lead chromate. Cancer Res 1976; 36: 1779-83.
Kobayashi N, Okamoto. Effects of lead oxides on the induction of lung tumours in Syrian Hamster. J Natl Cancer Inst 1974; 52: 1605-607.
ICPEMC. Report of ICPEMC task group 5 on the differentiation between genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens. Mutat Res 1984; 133: 1-49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0165-1110(84)90002-2
Varma MM, Joshi SR, Adeyami AO. Mutagenicity and infertility follow- ing administration to lead sub-acetate to swiss male mice. Experientia 1974; 30: 486-87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01926307
Stowe HD, Goyer RA. The reproductive ability and progeny of F, lead toxic rats. Fertility Sterility 1971; 22P: 755-60.
Hackett PL, Hess JO, Sikov MR. Effect of dose level and pregnancy on the distribution and toxicity of intravenous lead in rats. J Ton Environ Health 1983; 9: 1007-20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15287398209530221
Hess JO, Sikov MR. Distribution and effects of intravenous lead in the fetoplacental unit of the rat. J Tox Environ Health 1982; 9: 1021-32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15287398209530222
Lower WF, Drobney VK, Rose PS, Putnam CW. Environmental and laboratory monitoring of biotic indicators of heavy metals. Mutat Res 1976; 38: 386. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0165-1161(76)90109-6
Maki-Paakkanen JM, Sorsa M, Vainio H. Chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges in lead exposed worken. Hereditas 1981; 94: 269-75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1601-5223.1981.tb01764.x
Laemmli UK. Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bactriophage T4. Nature 1970; 227: 680. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/227680a0
Tiselius A. A new apparatus for electrophoretic analysis of colloidal mixtures. Trans Faraday Soc 1937; 33: 524. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/tf9373300524
Andrew AT Electrophoresis: Theory, techniques and biochemical and clinical applications. Clarendon Press, Oxford 1986.
Naqvi SNH, Tabassum M, Jahan N, Yasmeen MA, Azmi Matin Z. Toxicity and abnormalities produced by instar larvae of Musca domestica L. Pro Pakistan Congr Zool 1994; 14: 283-90.
Nukhet AB, Elizabeth A, Franklin NE. Effects of Nacetylcysteine on lead-exposed PC-12 cells. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol USA 2005; 49: 119-23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00244-004-0025-0
Ahmed SO, Naqvi SNH. Toxicity and effects of Dimilin on protein pattern of Aedes aegypti. Proc Entomol Soc 1985; 14&15: 119-32.
Corey OG, Galvao CL, Plomo. Serie Vigilancia 8. Metepec, Edo. De México. Centro Panamericano de Ecología Humanay Salud Org Panam Salud O M S 1989; p. 103.
Roy NK. Mutagenesis and comutagenesis by lead compounds. Res 1992; 298: 97-103.
Friedberg EC, Walker G, Siede W. DNA Repair and Mutagenesis. ASM Press, Washington, 1995; pp. 16-17.
Chandrik M, Arijit G, Parimalendu H. Influence of Cadmium on Growth, Survival and Clutch Size of A Common Indian Short Horned Grasshopper, Oxya fuscovittata. Am-Eurasian J Toxicol Sci 2009; 1(1): 32-36.
Kalajdzic P, Stamenkovic-Radak M, Andjelkovic M. The effect of different concentrations of lead on inversion polymorphism in Drosophila subobscura. Hereditas 2006; 143: 41-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2006.0018-0661.01939.x
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Copyright (c) 2013 Rizwanul Haq